Oswal 36 Sample Question Papers ISC Class 12 Psychology Solutions


Answer 1.

  • (i) The Theory of multiple intelligences was put forward by a developmental psychologist Howard Gardner, in 1983.
  • (ii) Stressors are the factors that trigger or cause stress. Stressors can be physiological, environmental, social and psychological in nature. For example, excessive noise, physical injury, etc.
  • (iii) The personality theory put forward by Abraham Maslow is the Theory of Self- Actualisation / Humanistic Theory.
  • (iv) The full form of GAS is General Adaptation Syndrome.
  • (v) Conventional
  • (vi) Bulimia Nervosa
  • (vii) specific objects, people or situations
  • (viii) Social norms
  • (ix) (a) False
  • (b) False
  • (c) True
  • (xi) (c) 90-109
  • (xii) (d) Dream analysis


Answer 2.

(i) Severe depression is defined as a period of depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in most activities, or sense of unhappiness. Other symptom include:

  • 1. Inability to think clearly
  • 2. Constant sleep problems
  • 3. Tiredness/feeling of nothingness.

Causes of severe depression are:

1. Biological: This cause of severe depression includes bio-chemical factors, hereditary factors,  neurophysiological factors, etc.

(a) Individuals may inherit genes that make them accesible to developing depression.

(b) It is also found in research that same hormonal changes occur in depression.

2. Physiological: These factors include thinking patterns, life events, lack of social support, sense of failure, stress, etc.

(a) Thinking patterns like overstressing the negative, taking the responsibility for bad events but not for good events.

(b) Stressful events include financial worries, unemployment, physical illness, etc.


(ii) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD): Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) refers to a pattern of unwanted thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead a person to do repetitive behaviours (compulsions). These obsessions and compulsions interfere with daily activities and cause significant distress.

Symptoms: A person who suffer from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder has a wide variety of symptoms. 

It includes:

1. Obsessive behaviour: In this, the person has the inability to stop thinking about a particular idea or topic. The person involved often finds these thoughts to be unpleasant and shameful.

2. Compulsive behaviour: In this, a person feels compelled to perform certain behaviours over and over again. Many compulsions deal with counting, ordering, checking, washing, etc.


  • 1. Biological cause: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder may be a result of changes in the body’s own natural chemistry or brain functions.
  • 2. Genetical cause: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder may have a genetic component, but specific genes have yet to be identified.
  • 3. Learning: Obsessive fears and compulsive behaviours can be learned from watching family members or gradually learned over time.

Answer 3.

Work-related stress occurs when the demand of work exceed resources for managing them. It has been found through studies that mostly jobs will involve some level of stress, which varies from time to time depending on multiple variables. However, when occupational stress becomes chronic, it can result in immense problems for an individual’s physical health; it also increases anxiety and mood swing related problems.

Occupational Stress may be caused by many factors:

  • 1. Job specific factors such as poor working conditions, safety and security related issues, unrealistic deadlines set by seniors, long and inflexible working hours, or unrealistic workload.
  • 2. Career development issues like Job Security, Promotion, etc.
  • 3. Relationship issues with fellow employees including conflict with co-workers, harassment by colleagues or seniors or discrimination.

Answer 4.

Stress can be described as the group of responses an organism makes to stimulus event that disturbs the physical and mental health of a person. It is body’s response to anything that requires attention or action. Stressors are events that cause our body to give the stress response. Such events include noise, crowding,
a bad relationship, or the daily commuting to school or office. The reaction to external stressors is called ‘strain’. In a state of stress, both physical and phychological conditions are affected.

The three major types of stress are physical, psychological, social stress.

  • 1. Physical Stress: Physical stresses are demands that change the state of our body. We feel strained when we overexert ourselves physically, lack a nutritious diet, suffer an injury, or fail to get enough sleep.
  • 2. Psychological Stress: These are stresses that we generate ourselves in our minds. These are personal and unique to the person experiencing them. In this type of stress we worry about problems, feel anxiety, or become depressed. These are not only symptoms of stress, but they cause further stress for us. Some of the important sources of psychological stress are frustration, conflicts, internal and social pressures, etc
  • 3. Social Stress: These are caused by people in our society and surroundings. Social events like death or illness in the family, strained relationships, trouble with neighbours are some examples of social stresses. They vary from person to person. Attending parties may be stressful for a person who likes to spend quiet evenings at home while an outgoing person may find staying at home in the evenings stressful.
  • A wide range of events and conditions can generate stress. Among the most important of these are major stressful life events, such as death of a loved one or personal injury, the annoying frequent hassles of everyday life and traumatic events that affect our lives.

Answer 5.

An aptitude is a special ability of a competency to do a certain kind of work at a certain level, which can also be considered as “talent”. Aptitudes may be physical or mental in nature. Aptitude is not about developing knowledge, understanding, learned or acquiring abilities (skills) or attitude. The innate nature of aptitude is in contrast to achievement, which represents knowledge or ability that is gained through learning.

Aptitude tests attempt to determine and measure an individual’s ability to attain, through future training and learning some specific set of skills. The tests assume that people differ in their special abilities and that these differences can be beneficial in forecasting future achievements.

The GATB assesses nine distinct aptitudes using 12 separate tests (eight pencil and paper tests along with four performance tests):

1. G - General Learning Ability 5. P - Form Perception
2. V - Verbal Aptitude 6. Q - Clerical Perception
3. N - Numerical Aptitude 7. K - Motor Co-ordination
4. S - Spatial Aptitude 8. F - Finger Dexterity
9. M - Manual Dexterity

Answer 6.

(i) (a) Senior Police Officer. The process used by Radha to bring attitudinal change is persuasion. Persuasion is the act of influencing person’s attitude or behaviour to change or to do something.

(b) The two ways of attitude formation are:

1. Classical Conditioning: When attitudes are formed by association. For example: A student starts developing interest in the subject because the teacher teaching the subject is his/her favourite teacher.
2. Operant Conditioning: When attitudes are formed through reward or punishment. For example: A child starts coming to the school on time because she/he is rewarded and develops a positive attitude towards punctuality.


(ii) (a) The intelligence Avinash is lacking in his interpersonal relationship is Emotional Intelligence.

(b) Emotionally intelligent person can:

  • 1. Perceive and be sensitive to one’s feelings and emotions.
  • 2. Perceive and be sensitive to various types of emotions in others by noting their body language, voice and tone, facial expressions.
  • 3. Control and regulate one’s emotions and their expressions while dealing with self and others to achieve harmony and peace.
  • 4. Relate one’s emotions to one’s thoughts while solving problems and taking decisions.

Answer 7.

Attributions are basically inferences that people make about the causes behind the events and behaviour.
The reason to make it is to understand the experiences. Attributions strongly impact the way people interact with others.

According to Research, attributions are internal and external in nature:

Internal vs. External

Attribution theory suggests that the attributions that people make about events and behaviour can be categorised either as internal or external. In an internal attribution, people surmise that the reason of an event or a person’s behaviour is due to the personal factors like traits, abilities or feelings. In an external attribution, people assume that a person’s behaviour is linked to situational factors.

For Example: A person’s car breaks down on the national highway. If he believes that the breakdown occurred because of personal ignorance about cars and its maintenance, then he is making an internal attribution. On the other hand, if he thinks that it happened because the car is old then he is making an external attribution.

Answer 8.

1. False consensus affect:It refers to the tendency of people to overestimate the level to which other people share their beliefs, attitudes and behaviours. People having false consensus effect estimate particular responses to be relatively common and accordingly make attributions giving the false reason.

Political radicals overestimate the number of people who share their values to beliefs because of the false consensus effect.

2. Automatic Vigilance: This is the strong tendency to pay attention to negative social information. Example:- If another person smiles at us twenty times during a conversation but frown once, it is the frown we tend to notice.


Answer 9.

According to Murphy and Murphy, attitude is primarily a way of being set towards or against certain things.

An attitude is a relatively enduring organisation of beliefs around an object or situation predisposing one to respond in some preferential manner.

Components of Attitude:

There are three components which are found to be common to all attitude.

1. Cognitive or belief component: It represents the sets of beliefs and opinions through which the attitude is expressed e.g., one may think that the ideology of a particular political party is good (or not good) for the country.
2. Affective or feeling component: It refers to the emotions associated with a person or an object. These emotions conclude pleasant or unpleasant feelings, liking or disliking for an object e.g., one may have a pleasant or unpleasant feeling.
3. Behavioural or action component: It refers to the actual behaviour which occurs in relation to a person or an object. For e.g., you love swimming and jumping into the pool, it brings smile to your face, for you there is nothing greater than swimming.

Answer 10.

(i) Multiple intelligences is a theory put forth by Howard Gardner. He asserts that intelligence is not a single thing. There are various varieties of intelligence. Each of these intelligences are separate from one another. As a result, if a person demonstrates with one kind of intelligence, it does not signify being high or low on other types of intelligence. Gardner also argued on various sorts of interaction and cooperation between intelligences to track down and fix an issue. Gardner studied exceptionally gifted individuals, who have demonstrated by great skill in their places, and he characterised eight type of intelligence which are as follows:

  • 1. Linguistic (an ability to produce and use language): It is the capacity to use language fluently and flexibly to express one’s thinking and understand others. People high on this intelligence are word smart.
  • 2. Logical-Mathematical (an ability to think logically and critically, and solve problems): People who have this type of intelligence can think logically and critically. They engage in abstract reasoning, and can manipulate symbols to solve mathematical problems. Scientists and Nobel Prize winners are likely to be strong in this intelligence.
  • 3. Spatial (an ability to form visual images and patterns): It refers to the abilities involved in forming, using, and transforming mental images. The person high on this intelligence can easily represents the spatial world in the mind.
  • 4. Musical Ability: The ability to produce, compose, and manipulate musical rhythms and patterns is referred to as musical ability. People with high levels of this intelligence have a particularly keen ear for vibrations and novel sound patterns.
  • 5. Bodily-kinesthetic Ability: The capacity to utilise one’s entire body or specific body parts in flexible and creative ways is known as bodily-kinesthetic ability. This includes using one’s entire body or specific body parts to showcase or manufacture items and solve problems. Sports persons, actresses, dancers, gymnasts, actors, and surgeons are likely to possess this kind of intellect.
  • 6. Inter-personal Intelligence (the capacity to perceive subtle nuances in others’ behaviour): This is the capacity to comprehend the motivations, emotions, and behaviours of others in order to establish trusting bonds with them. People in the fields of psychology, counselling, politics, social work, and leadership in religion are likely to have high interpersonal intelligence.
  • 7. Intra-personal Ability (the capacity to comprehend one’s own emotions, motives, and desires): This concept relates to the awareness of one’s internal assets and weaknesses and the use of that awareness to relate to others successfully. People with high levels of this ability have more refined sensitivities about who they are, what it means to be human, and what life is all about. Examples of this kind of intelligence are given by philosophers and spiritual authorities.


(ii) As opposed to technological intelligence, integral intelligence, which emphasises connectivity with the social and global environment, is the phrase used to describe intellect in the Indian culture. Indian philosophers have a comprehensive view of intelligence, giving both cognitive and non-cognitive processes equal consideration, as well as the integration of both.

The Sanskrit word “buddhi,” which is frequently used to denote intellect, has a much wider range of application than the western idea of intelligence. According to J.P. Das, buddhi involves cognitive ability like knowledge, discrimination, and comprehension together with such skills as mental effort, deliberate action, sentiments, and opinions. Buddhi is the ability to recognise oneself through conscience, will, and desire, among other things. As a result, in addition to a significant cognitive component, the concept of buddhi also incorporates emotive and motivational components. In contrast to western perspectives, which largely emphasise cognitive factors, Indian traditions identify the following competencies as aspects of intelligence:

  • 1. Cognitive capacity: It includes sensitivity to context, understanding, discrimination, problem solving, and effective communication.
  • 2. Social competence: It covers respect for social order, commitment to elders, the young and the needy, concern about others, recognising others’ perspectives.
  • 3. Emotional competence: Emotional competence involves self-regulation and self-monitoring of emotions, honesty, politeness, good conduct, and self-evaluation.
  • 4. Entrepreneurial competence: In includes commitment, persistence, patience, hard work, vigilance, and goal-directed behaviours.

Answer 11.

(i) Ram is using defense mechanism in this situation and trying to rationalise his behaviour by saying that he failed in exams due to the pens and he will do better if he get different set of pens. Thus, by using defense mechanism, he is dealing with uncomfortable feeling of anxiety produced due to the results.

(ii) Freud believed that people avoid anxiety mainly by developing defense mechanisms by which they try to defend the ego against the awareness of the instinctual needs. Thus, defense mechanism is a way of reducing anxiety by distorting reality. Although some defense against anxiety is normal and adaptive, people who use these mechanisms to such an extent, that reality is truly distorted, develop various forms of maladjustment.

(iii) Freud has described different kinds of defense mechanisms.

  • Repression: In this defense mechanism, anxiety provoking behaviours or unpleasant thoughts are totally pushed from the conscious mind. When people repress a feeling or desire, they become totally unaware of that wish or desire. Thus, when a person says, “I do not know why I did that”, some repressed feeling or desire is expressing itself.
  • Projection: In this type of defense mechanism, a person blames others for his/her own anxieties, guilt or conflicts. So, who has strong aggressive tendencies may see other people as acting in an inordinately aggressive way towards her/him.
  • Denial: In denial, a person denies the existence of specific situation or feeling and refuses to acknowledge certain facts. For example, someone suffering from HIV/AIDS denies her/ his illness.
  • Reaction formation: A person defends against anxiety by adopting behaviours opposite to her/his true feelings. A person with strong sexual urges, who channels her/his energy into religious fervour, presents a classical example of reaction formation. In rationalisation, a person tries to make unreasonable feelings or behaviour which seem reasonable and acceptable.

Answer 12.

(i) Child is suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Children suffering from ADHD feel it difficult in concentrating on one thing and feel restlessness and may act on impulse.

(ii) The two main features of ADHD are inattention and hyperactivity impulsivity.

1. Children who are inattentive find it difficult to sustain mental effort during work or play. They have a hard time keeping their minds on any one thing or in following instructions. Common complaints are that the child does not listen, cannot concentrate, does not follow instructions, is disorganised, easily distracted, forgetful, does not finish assignments, and is quick to lose interest in boring activities.

2. Children who are impulsive seem unable to control their immediate reactions or to think before they act. They find it difficult to wait or take turns, have difficulty resisting immediate temptations or delaying gratification. Minor mishaps such as knocking things over are common whereas more serious accidents and injuries can also occur.

Hyperactivity also takes many forms. Children with ADHD are in constant motion. Sitting still through a lesson is impossible for them. The child may fidget, squirm, climb and run around the room aimlessly. Parents and teachers describe them as ‘driven by a motor’, always on the go, and talk incessantly.

ISC 36 Sample Question Papers

All Subjects Combined for Class 12 Exam 2024

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