Oswal 36 Sample Question Papers ISC Class 12 Psychology Solutions
(i) Severe depression is defined as a period of depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in most activities, or sense of unhappiness. Other symptom include:
Causes of severe depression are:
1. Biological: This cause of severe depression includes bio-chemical factors, hereditary factors, neurophysiological factors, etc.
(a) Individuals may inherit genes that make them accesible to developing depression.
(b) It is also found in research that same hormonal changes occur in depression.
2. Physiological: These factors include thinking patterns, life events, lack of social support, sense of failure, stress, etc.
(a) Thinking patterns like overstressing the negative, taking the responsibility for bad events but not for good events.
(b) Stressful events include financial worries, unemployment, physical illness, etc.
(ii) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD): Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) refers to a pattern of unwanted thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead a person to do repetitive behaviours (compulsions). These obsessions and compulsions interfere with daily activities and cause significant distress.
Symptoms: A person who suffer from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder has a wide variety of symptoms.
1. Obsessive behaviour: In this, the person has the inability to stop thinking about a particular idea or topic. The person involved often finds these thoughts to be unpleasant and shameful.
2. Compulsive behaviour: In this, a person feels compelled to perform certain behaviours over and over again. Many compulsions deal with counting, ordering, checking, washing, etc.
Work-related stress occurs when the demand of work exceed resources for managing them. It has been found through studies that mostly jobs will involve some level of stress, which varies from time to time depending on multiple variables. However, when occupational stress becomes chronic, it can result in immense problems for an individual’s physical health; it also increases anxiety and mood swing related problems.
Occupational Stress may be caused by many factors:
Stress can be described as the group of responses an organism makes to stimulus event that disturbs the physical and mental health of a person. It is body’s response to anything that requires attention or action. Stressors are events that cause our body to give the stress response. Such events include noise, crowding,
a bad relationship, or the daily commuting to school or office. The reaction to external stressors is called ‘strain’. In a state of stress, both physical and phychological conditions are affected.
The three major types of stress are physical, psychological, social stress.
An aptitude is a special ability of a competency to do a certain kind of work at a certain level, which can also be considered as “talent”. Aptitudes may be physical or mental in nature. Aptitude is not about developing knowledge, understanding, learned or acquiring abilities (skills) or attitude. The innate nature of aptitude is in contrast to achievement, which represents knowledge or ability that is gained through learning.
Aptitude tests attempt to determine and measure an individual’s ability to attain, through future training and learning some specific set of skills. The tests assume that people differ in their special abilities and that these differences can be beneficial in forecasting future achievements.
The GATB assesses nine distinct aptitudes using 12 separate tests (eight pencil and paper tests along with four performance tests):
|1. G - General Learning Ability||5. P - Form Perception|
|2. V - Verbal Aptitude||6. Q - Clerical Perception|
|3. N - Numerical Aptitude||7. K - Motor Co-ordination|
|4. S - Spatial Aptitude||8. F - Finger Dexterity|
|9. M - Manual Dexterity|
(i) (a) Senior Police Officer. The process used by Radha to bring attitudinal change is persuasion. Persuasion is the act of influencing person’s attitude or behaviour to change or to do something.
(b) The two ways of attitude formation are:
(ii) (a) The intelligence Avinash is lacking in his interpersonal relationship is Emotional Intelligence.
(b) Emotionally intelligent person can:
Attributions are basically inferences that people make about the causes behind the events and behaviour.
The reason to make it is to understand the experiences. Attributions strongly impact the way people interact with others.
According to Research, attributions are internal and external in nature:
Internal vs. External
Attribution theory suggests that the attributions that people make about events and behaviour can be categorised either as internal or external. In an internal attribution, people surmise that the reason of an event or a person’s behaviour is due to the personal factors like traits, abilities or feelings. In an external attribution, people assume that a person’s behaviour is linked to situational factors.
For Example: A person’s car breaks down on the national highway. If he believes that the breakdown occurred because of personal ignorance about cars and its maintenance, then he is making an internal attribution. On the other hand, if he thinks that it happened because the car is old then he is making an external attribution.
Political radicals overestimate the number of people who share their values to beliefs because of the false consensus effect.
According to Murphy and Murphy, attitude is primarily a way of being set towards or against certain things.
An attitude is a relatively enduring organisation of beliefs around an object or situation predisposing one to respond in some preferential manner.
Components of Attitude:
There are three components which are found to be common to all attitude.
(i) Multiple intelligences is a theory put forth by Howard Gardner. He asserts that intelligence is not a single thing. There are various varieties of intelligence. Each of these intelligences are separate from one another. As a result, if a person demonstrates with one kind of intelligence, it does not signify being high or low on other types of intelligence. Gardner also argued on various sorts of interaction and cooperation between intelligences to track down and fix an issue. Gardner studied exceptionally gifted individuals, who have demonstrated by great skill in their places, and he characterised eight type of intelligence which are as follows:
(ii) As opposed to technological intelligence, integral intelligence, which emphasises connectivity with the social and global environment, is the phrase used to describe intellect in the Indian culture. Indian philosophers have a comprehensive view of intelligence, giving both cognitive and non-cognitive processes equal consideration, as well as the integration of both.
The Sanskrit word “buddhi,” which is frequently used to denote intellect, has a much wider range of application than the western idea of intelligence. According to J.P. Das, buddhi involves cognitive ability like knowledge, discrimination, and comprehension together with such skills as mental effort, deliberate action, sentiments, and opinions. Buddhi is the ability to recognise oneself through conscience, will, and desire, among other things. As a result, in addition to a significant cognitive component, the concept of buddhi also incorporates emotive and motivational components. In contrast to western perspectives, which largely emphasise cognitive factors, Indian traditions identify the following competencies as aspects of intelligence:
(i) Ram is using defense mechanism in this situation and trying to rationalise his behaviour by saying that he failed in exams due to the pens and he will do better if he get different set of pens. Thus, by using defense mechanism, he is dealing with uncomfortable feeling of anxiety produced due to the results.
(ii) Freud believed that people avoid anxiety mainly by developing defense mechanisms by which they try to defend the ego against the awareness of the instinctual needs. Thus, defense mechanism is a way of reducing anxiety by distorting reality. Although some defense against anxiety is normal and adaptive, people who use these mechanisms to such an extent, that reality is truly distorted, develop various forms of maladjustment.
(iii) Freud has described different kinds of defense mechanisms.
(i) Child is suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Children suffering from ADHD feel it difficult in concentrating on one thing and feel restlessness and may act on impulse.
(ii) The two main features of ADHD are inattention and hyperactivity impulsivity.
1. Children who are inattentive find it difficult to sustain mental effort during work or play. They have a hard time keeping their minds on any one thing or in following instructions. Common complaints are that the child does not listen, cannot concentrate, does not follow instructions, is disorganised, easily distracted, forgetful, does not finish assignments, and is quick to lose interest in boring activities.
2. Children who are impulsive seem unable to control their immediate reactions or to think before they act. They find it difficult to wait or take turns, have difficulty resisting immediate temptations or delaying gratification. Minor mishaps such as knocking things over are common whereas more serious accidents and injuries can also occur.
Hyperactivity also takes many forms. Children with ADHD are in constant motion. Sitting still through a lesson is impossible for them. The child may fidget, squirm, climb and run around the room aimlessly. Parents and teachers describe them as ‘driven by a motor’, always on the go, and talk incessantly.
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