Oswal 36 Sample Question Papers ISC Class 12 History Solutions


Answer 1.


  • (i) Fazl Ali.
  • (ii) Shah Commission.
  • (iii) K. Kamaraj.
  • (iv) (b) Decreased tensions between the USA and the USSR
  • (v) (c) Three
  • (vi) (b) Dowry Prohibition Act 1961
  • (vii) (a) A.Z. Phizo
  • (viii) Madras Labour Union was founded in the year 1918 by B.P. Wadia who was one of the close associates of Mrs. Annie Besant.
  • (ix) The major cause of his assassination was the resistance of the right-wing extremist of the Oslo Accords that he negotiated with the Palestine Liberation Organisation.
  • (x) The Congress ministries resigned as they were disappointed with the decision of the Viceroy to include India in the World War II and that too without any consultation.
  • (xi) The Dalai Lama was the spiritual head of the Tibet who sought asylum in India due to the Chinese aggression in Tibet in year 1959.
  • (xii) The East Pakistani Awami League became a severe threat for the West Pakistan as it was successful in winning the majority in the elections conducted in 1971.
  • (xiii) Morarji Desai became the Prime Minister of India from the Janata Party after the elections of 1977.
  • (xiv) This Act was brought by the Congress for ending the discrimination in wages between men and women working at similar positions. It was a historical legislation.
  • (xv) The Cold War was not a direct armed struggle between the two rival nations. It was rather a diplomatic and ideological war in which both the nations spread their ideology in the world.
  • (xvi) All three commissions are associated with the Israel-Palestine conflict that were appointed by the British.


Answer 2.

The Cripps Mission was sent to India by the British in 1942 at the time when things were going out of their hands in the World War II.

  • (a) This Mission was led by Sir Stafford Cripps who was the member of the British War Cabinet. He made several proposals to the Congress and other parties in India.
  • (b) India would be granted the dominion status after the end of the World War II and would also possess the right to secede from the British Commonwealth.
  • (c) A constitution making body would be set up after the war. The members of this Constituent Assembly would belong to the British India and also from the Native States.
  • (d) The Constitution thus formed, would be adopted by the British government on one condition only that any Indian Province could choose to remain outside the Union and could have direct negotiation with the British.
  • (e) The control of the military and other defence matters would remain under the British and these decisions could not be taken by the Indians.

Answer 3.

(i) The first general elections were important in several aspects:

  • (a) These elections proved the commitment of the Indian leaders towards the process of democracy as the elections were conducted in the fair manner.
  • (b) All the adults above the age of 21 years took part in the election process that showed the vision of the Indian leaders concerning the establishment of political equality.
  • (c) After the formation of the government, the opposition leaders took an active part in the Lok Sabha and did constructive criticism of the government.
  • (d) There was compete freedom granted to the press about the sharing of information in all senses and coverage of the election process.
  • (e) There was freedom to the political leaders and the trade unions to oppose the government and their policies.
  • (f) There were several ministers in the ruling government who were part of the other parties. This showed the belief of the democratic ideals among the Congress.


(ii) Before the enactment of the Indian Constitution, the states were divided into four groups A, B, C, and D. This division was the legacy of the British, but after the Independence of India, the British severed their ties with the Princely States and gave them freedom to join either India or Pakistan or remain independent. The majority of the Princely States became a part of India and were made the part of existing provinces. The new Indian Constitution made India a Union of States and there were mainly three categories of states.

  • (a) The ‘A’ states were Assam, Bihar, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Madras, Orissa, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The ‘B’ states were Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore, PEPSU, Rajasthan, Saurashtra, and Travancore. The ‘C’ states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Bhopal, Coorg, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Kutch, Manipur, Tripura and Vindhya Pradesh. The ‘D’ state was Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • (b) This A, B, C and D grouping was done away on the recommendations of the State Reorganisation Commission headed by Fazl Ali.
  • (c) On the recommendations of Fazl Ali Commission, there was creation of two groups: 14 states and 6 union territories in India.

Answer 4.

There were a plethora of reasons that led to the beginning of the Naxalite movements in West Bengal, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh due to following reasons:

  • (a) Under the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution, it was deemed that the forest reserves and the land resources in the tribal areas were managed by the Tribal Advisory Council which would function independently of the government.
  • (b) For the first two decades after the Independence, there was no formation of the Tribal Advisory Council and apart from this, many private companies were given the rights to operate in these areas for the extraction of important resources.
  • (c) The Ninth Schedule passed a series of land reformation laws. These laws put ceiling on the amount of lands that could be possessed by the rich. However, there was no proper implementation of the laws and the majority of the tribals remained landless.
  • (d) The developmental projects in these areas led to large scale losts of lands for the peasants.
  • (e) The mining permits granted by the government to the mining companies disturbed the life of the peasants and often resulted in their displacement.
  • (f) All these factors contributed in the rise of anger of the tribal people and this led to the beginning of the violent agitation.

Answer 5.

Dowry has been one of the major issues in India since a long time. It is basically the economic resources that a bride’s family gives to the groom’s family during their marriage.

  • (a) The demand for the dowry is made in cash or kind by the groom’s family from the bride’s family.
  • (b) One of the important organisations that work in this direction is the Progressive Organisation of Women of Hyderabad. It leads several mass protests against this practice.
  • (c) In the 1970s decade, the region of Delhi became the centre of the movements against the dowry and the incidents of violence among the women in the domestic home.
  • (d) Other two organisations that fought against the dowry are Stree Sangharsh and Mahila Dakshita Samiti.
  • (e) The efforts of the Stree Sangharsh made the term Dowry Murder a household term in India.
  • (f) Another organisation named “Organisation for Creating Consciousness Against Dowry” was established under whose several women organisations got established and functioned.
  • (g) The Dowry Prohibition Act was passed in the year 1961 and had tried to restrict these incidents in the society.
  • (h) The incidents of the dowry should be stopped by increasing the awareness among people by educating them about its demerits.
  • (i) Harsh provisions like Section 498A that provides for the arrest of the man and his family without trial has led to the strong opposition from the male community as there has been numerous incidents of false accusations.

Answer 6.

The reasons that led to the mid-term elections were:

  • (a) The Janata Party was successful in forming the government in 1977 under the leadership of Morarji Desai. However, there were ideological differences in the party.
  • (b) Some of the leaders of the party were not convinced by the policies of Morarji Desai. This led to felling down of the Janata government. Later Chaudhary Charan Singh became the Prime Minister with the support of the Congress.
  • (c) However, later on, the Congress took their support back which led to the fall of Chaudhary Charan Singh’s government. This led to the mid-term elections in 1980.

Answer 7.

The separatist movement in Nagaland was led by the Naga Nationalist Council (NNC) that became a significant organisation during the 1940s and the 1950s.

  • (a) In the year 1946, the NNC asked for the Naga Home Rule for all the Naga tribes and the right to selfdetermination.
  • (b) A.N. Phizo became the Chairman of the NNC and he made a declaration that there would be a conduction of a referendum that would decide that Nagaland should remain a part of India or not.
  • (c) This referendum was conducted in the year 1951 in which the 99% of the people in Nagaland voted for independence. This was immediately rejected by the Assamese and the Indian government.
  • (d) In the year 1956, Nagaland was put under the category of the Disturbed Area and the army was deployed to control the situation of law and order there.
  • (e) There was armed struggle between the armed forces and the Naga separatists. Later the NNC broke down into two factions. One side supported peaceful methods and the other supported the armed rebellion.
  • (f) In the year 1963, Nagaland was made the smallest Indian state but this did not convince the extremists and they carried on the extremist struggle.

Answer 8.

The Comecon or Council for Mutual Economic Assistance was formed by the Soviet Union in the year 1949. Some of its main purposes were:

  • (a) To help the Eastern European nations in their economic development.
  • (b) This plan led to the nationalisation of the industries and the collectivisation of agricultural activities and land.
  • (c) The plan aimed to organise the communist bloc into a single integrated economy.

The Cominform or Communist Information Bureau was formed during the introduction of the Molotov plan. Some of its aims are:

  • (a) To align the working of all the communist influenced nations of Eastern Europe along the lines of the USSR.
  • (b) The elections were controlled and the members of the non-communist ideology were expelled from the government.
  • (c) East Germany was also operated on the Communist ideology as it was under the control of the USSR.

Answer 9.

(i) The contribution of Mao Zedong in the history of China is diverse:

  • (a) He led to the unification of China under Communist rule.
  • (b) The creation of the famous Red Army of China was the initiative of Mao Zedong. The army became powerful in the subsequent years.
  • (c) Some of his policies like the Five-Year Plan and the Great Leap Forward proved to be successful on several parameters for agricultural communities.
  • (d) He did not blindly follow the Communist model of the Russians and adopted policies suitable to China.
  • (e) Under his leadership, China gradually moved towards becoming a powerful nation in the coming times.
  • (f) The ideology of Mao was supported by wide sections in Chinese society.


(ii) Mao Zedong always tried to keep the revolution and the Great Leap on a pure Marxist—Leninist course. But there were a number of leaders who wanted an expert managerial class to push forward industrialization on the Russian model, instead of relying on the cadres. But Mao never agreed with this view and condemned the Russian policy for a number of reasons.

Thus there was a great public debate about what course to be followed. He launched a campaign to save the revolution. In this Great Cultural Revolution, Mao appealed to the masses. In Mao claimed that literary and artistic circles had behaved for the last 15 years as arrogant bureaucrats, had not been identified with the workers and peasants and had not reflected socialist revolution and socialist construction.

He also criticized bourgeois authorities in the universities. In certain party leaders of Peking and their journals were attacked for their pro-capitalist views. The Red Guards (mostly students) Played an important role in dissamination of Mao’s goal through out the country.


Answer 10.

(i) Some of the important initiatives of President Kennedy were:

  • (a) Kennedy made an appointment of a black person as an ambassador of the USA which was the first instance of its kind.
  • (b) He introduced Civil Rights Bill in Congress that was passed in the year 1964. It was landmark legislation in the history of the USA.
  • (c) This bill guaranteed voting rights to the black people in every state of the USA.
  • (d) The bill also sought to end the discrimination in public places like hotels, schools, stores and offices.
  • (e) President Kennedy was very sympathetic towards the cause of the black people and took various decisions in his capacity to uplift them.


(ii) The main demands in the three different waves of the feminist movement are:

  • (a) The first wave of feminism was started for demanding the rights for suffrage and political equality. This wave of feminism ended in the USA after the passage of the nineteenth amendment of the US Constitution in 1920 that gave voting rights to women.
  • (b) The second wave sought to demand social and cultural rights for ending inequalities in these areas. The second wave started in the 1960s and carried on till the 1980s in which several developments were made.
  • (c) The third wave of the feminist movement aims at increasing the influence of women in politics. The third wave is carrying on till the recent times in which the women are occupying important political positions.

Answer 11.

The reasons due to which Hitler decided to attack Russia were:

  • (a) Hitler staunchly opposed communism and hated the Russians for the introduction of communist rule.
  • (b) Hitler had apprehensions concerning the Russians motive in the war and felt that the Russians could attack the Germans at a suitable time in the future.
  • (c) The motive of Hitler was to pursue the policy of Lebensraum or living space.
  • (d) In June 1941, Hitler led to the initiation of Operation Barbarossa. Under this operation, the Nazi forces aimed to capture the Russian territories and their capital.
  • (e) Under the operation, the Germans planned to attack Russia from three sides-Leningrad, Moscow and Ukraine. The Germans covered a significant distance soon in the territories of Leningrad and Moscow.
  • (f) The German army reached Stalingrad in August 1942. The Russian army had to retreat from this point but they destroyed all the factories, bridges and railways while retreating. This was done to stop the German army from advancing further.
  • (g) The Russian army fought bravely to defend Stalingrad for about six months. Meanwhile, the German army suffered badly due to the heavy rains and harsh winters of Russia.
  • (h) The German army did not have proper winter clothes and they suffered huge casualties. They had to ultimately withdraw from Leningrad and move west of Moscow.
  • (i) Ultimately the German army faced defeat from the Russian army and was driven out of the Russian territories.
  • (j) Operation Barbarossa has remained one of the biggest military operations in human history. It opened the Eastern Front of World War II. There was large scale destruction of men and property during the operation.
  • (k) The failure of the Russian invasion was the beginning of the defeat of the Germans.

Answer 12.

(i) Hitler was an Austrian by birth and had the motive of ensuring the integration of Austria with Germany. Some of the events that led to the integration of Austria with Germany were:

  • (a) In July 1934, Austrian Nazis led an attack on the Chancellor of Austria Dollfuss who died due to the attack.
  • (b) The attack of the Austrian Nazis was resisted by Italy as it considered Austria as a buffer state between Germany and Italy. As a result, Italy sent three battalions to counter the Austrian Nazis.
  • (c) The Austrian Nazis were not successful in recapturing the power in this incident.
  • (d) Hitler was convinced after his successful intervention in Spain that he would be able to integrate Austria with Germany.
  • (e) Hitler encouraged and supported the Nazis in Austria and ultimately, the Chancellor of Austria had to agree to conduct its foreign affairs in the direction of Germany.
  • (f) Ultimately, in the year 1938, Hitler sent his troops to Austria. Thus, the annexation of Austria was completed.


(ii) The beginning of the Naxal activities took place from a village called Naxalbari in the state of West Bengal. Since then it has expanded to several parts of the nation and had led to destruction of lives and property. The government has made several efforts to contain them.

  • (a) The Central government launched numerous joint operations of army and police in the areas where the Naxal activities were the highest and tried to eliminate the disturbing elements from the society.
  • (b) There was arrest of suspected Naxalites, seizure of illicit weapons and ammunitions and also money in these operations.
  • (c) The government also made efforts to negotiate with the top leaders of the movement and tried to reach a conclusion.
  • (d) In several North-Eastern states, the government has signed agreements with several Naxal groups and has also given autonomy to some of the groups in the governance of their region.
  • (e) There are dedicated teams of police, paramilitary forces and other groups who are closely monitoring the areas which are directly affected by the Naxal areas.

Answer 13.

(i) The leader of Egypt Colonel Nasser established close ties with Czechoslovakia for the import of Russian arms and ammunition. This decision of Egypt was perceived as a threat by the USA as the nation was supporting a Communist country. This started a conflict between Egypt and Western powers. Some of the important events that took place were:

  • (a) The Americans cancelled the aid of 46 million dollars to Egypt for the construction of the Aswan Dam.
  • (b) By this action, America wanted Nasser to cut off his ties with the Communist countries.
  • (c) Nasser as a retaliatory measure nationalized the Suez Canal. The Suez Canal was an important link between Europe and Africa.
  • (d) This decision of Egypt led to the entry of France and Britain in the conflict who decided to teach a lesson to Nasser.

(ii) The consequences of the Six-Day War of 1967 are discussed below:

  • (a) The war was a huge success for Israel. They occupied a vast amount of territories from the Arab nations.
  • (b) The Israelis refused to return the occupied territories even after the order of the United Nations.
  • (c) The territories occupied by the Israelis became a buffer zone between the Arab nations and Israel.
  • (d) Approximately a million Arabs became refugees that disturbed the order in the Arab territories as well as Israel.
  • (e) The prestige of the Arab nations especially Egypt deteriorated significantly. The leaders of the Arab nations lost their respect and authority.
  • (f) This war would have opened the avenues for negotiations between Israel and Arab nations and that didn’t happen as Arabs had hatred towards Israel.

ISC 36 Sample Question Papers

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