Print Culture And The Modern World Class 10 Notes History Chapter 5
What are Print Culture and the Modern World?
The first printed books
The earliest print technology was developed in China, Japan and Korea. From 594 AD onwards, books were printed in China by rubbing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks.
For a very long time, the imperial state of China was the major producer of printed material. The Chinese bureaucratic system recruited its personnel through civil service examinations. The imperial state sponsored the large scale printing of textbooks for this examination.
By the seventeenth century, the use of print diversified in China because of a blooming urban culture.
Print in the world
Print in Japan : The Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around 768-770 AD. The Buddhist Diamond Sutra which was printed in 868 AD was the oldest Japanese book.
Advent of print in Europe : Marco Polo was a great explorer from Italy. He returned from China in 1295 and brought the knowledge of woodblock printing along with him. By the early fifteenth century, the woodblock printing replaced the books made by calligraphy.
Gutenberg and the Printing Press :
The Print Revolution and its Influence :
Religious discourse and fear of Print :
The Reading Mania :
Print culture and french revolution
Print Culture : Print popularised the ideas of Enlightenment thinkers. These thinkers gave critical commentary on tradition, superstition and despotism. Voltaire and Rousseau were among the prominent enlightenment thinkers.
The Nineteenth Century Print Culture :
Further Innovations : Richard M. Hoe of New York perfected the power-driven cylindrical press by the mid-nineteenth century. This could print 8,000 sheets per hour. Many other innovations took place during this period. All the innovations had a cumulative effect which improved the appearance of printed texts.
|List of Influential Paintings||Date of Creation|
|(1)||Book making before the age of print, Akhlaq-i-Nasiri (The Ethics of Nasiri) by Nasir-al-din-Tusi.||1595|
|(2)||A morning scene, ukiyo print by Shunman Kubo.||Late eighteenth century|
|(3)||A portrait of Johann Gutenberg, Albrecht Mentz.||1584|
|(4)||L'Imprimerie, J.V Schley.||1739|
|(5)||Danse Macabre, (Dance of Death) Bernte Notke.||1633|
|(6)||Advertisements at a railway station in England, a lithograph by Alfred Concanene||1874|
|(7)||Raja Ritudhwaj rescuing Princess Madalsa from the captivity of demons, print by Raja Ravi Verma.||End of nineteenth century|
|1. Calligraphy: The art of ornate and stylised writing.||11. Satiety: It is the feeling or the state of being sated or achieving complete satisfaction.|
|2. Vellum: A parchment obtained from the skin of animals.||12. Seditious: Action, speech or writing that is seen as antagonising the government.|
|3. Platen: In the sphere of letterpress printing, platen is a board that is embossed on the back of the paper to get impression from the type. Initially, a wooden board was used. Later on, it was made of steel.||13. Denominations: The term ‘denominations’ are hailed as ‘sub-groups’ or ‘sub-categories’ within the fold of religion.|
|4. Compositor: The person who composes the text for printing.||14. Almanac: An annual publication that reflects on astronomical data and gives informative data about the movement of the sun and moon, timing of full tides and eclipses. It stresses on the significance of the day-to-day public life.|
|5. Galley: It is a variant of metal frame in which types are laid and the text composed.||15. Chapbook: The term ‘chapbook’ denotes ‘pocket-size’ books that are sold by the wandering peddlers. These chapbooks became phenomenal from the sixteenth century Print Revolution.|
|6. Ballads: A ballad is a sort of verse, belting out a poem or song narrative set to music.||16. Despotism: The term ‘despotism’ refers to a variant of governance in which absolute power is wielded by an individual and unregulated by legal and constitutional checks.|
|7. Taverns: Places where people assembled to drink alcohol, eat food, and to meet friends and swap news.||17. Ulama: The term ‘Ulama’ means erudite legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia (a body of Islamic Law).|
|8. Protestant Reformation: The concept of ‘Protestant Reformation’ means believing in the ‘protestant’ or reformed strand of Christianity, popularised by Martin Luther.||18. Fatwa: A legal pronouncement on Islamic law usually provided by a mufti (legal scholar) to describe issues related to the uncertainty of th law.|
|9. Inquisition: A former Roman Catholic Court that identified and punished heretics.||19. Vernacular Press Act: At the behest of Lord Lytton, the then Viceroy of India (governed 1876-80), the Act aimed to restrict the vernacular press from criticising the British policies, basically the opposition that developed from the beginning of the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-80).|
|10. Heresy: Beliefs that do not follow the prescribed teachings of the Catholic Church. In the medieval epoch, heresy was detrimental to the right and privileges of the Catholic Church. Heretical notions were severely punished.||20. Censorship: Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, politically incorrect or ‘inconvenient’ as determined by government authorities or by community consensus.|