The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe Class 10 Notes History Chapter 1
What are the rise of nationalism in europe?
The rise of nationalism in other european countries
s(early-mid nineteenth century)
- Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms - duchies and cantons, having autonomous rule.
- The Industrial Revolution emerged in England between 1820 and 1840.
- After the decline of Napoleon, the European government adopted the ideals of conservation.
- The Conservatism that dominated the European scene after 1815 gained support from Monarchy, Aristocracy and the Church.
- The revolutionaries antagonised the conservative regimes and fought for liberty and freedom.
- Giuseppe Mazzini formed 'Young Italy' for the purpose of uniting Italy.
The age of revolutions (1838-48)
- During this phase, liberalism developed in full swing.
- The classic statements of liberalism, 'the Declaration of Rights of Men and Citizens' surfaced.
- Brussels and Greece saw the high noon of revolutionary movements.
- Europe became the epicentre of cultural and political movements.
- The 1830s represented the turbulent years of economic hardships as Hunger Hardship and Popular Revolt emerged.
- This period marked the rise of constitutionalism and the process of national unifications.
- 1. Absolutism:In history, the term ‘absolutism’ signifies a variant of monarchical government that has centralised, autocratic and militarised apparatus.
- 2. Republic: It signifies a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives. It has a nominated President instead of a monarch.
- 3. Liberté, égalité, fraternité: It is the national motto of France, originated from the French Revolution of 1789.
- 4. Plebiscite: It means the direct voting of all the constituents of an electorate on a significant public question. It is also known as referendum.
- 5. Nationalism: It is an extreme patriotic force that brings about massive changes in the political and social order of any country.
- 6. Nation-State: It indicates a sovereign state in which all the citizens or subjects are bounded by factors that describe a nation, for example language or common origin.
- 7. Estates General: The Estates General is synony-mous to States General. It signifies legislative or consultative assembly body, representing three estates or regimes of the French society (clergymen, aristocrats and the bourgeoisie). It remained in action till 1789.
- 8. Bastille: The Bastille represented a fortress in Paris, Popularly known as the Bastille Saint-Antoine. It played a significant role in the internal battles of France. For most part of French history, it was used as a state prison by the French monarchs.
- 9. Despotism: It indicates wielding of absolute power, particularly in cruel and oppressive way.
- 10. Jacobin Club: Jacobin club or Jacobins was the most popular political group which emanated from the French Revolution, it represented the ideologies of equality and radicalism.
- 11. Feudalism: Feudalism represents the principal social system in medieval Europe. In this system, the nobility received lands from the Crown in lieu of military service.
- The feudal lords dominated the lower segments of the society, mainly vassals and the serfs cultivated the lands of the feudal lords and paid who gave homage to him and a part of the produce to the feudal lords in return for military protection.
- 12. Manorialism: Manorialism was a significant component of feudal society. It was characterised by the granting of legal and economic power to the Lord of the Manor (otherwise, known as fief or an estate of land, occupied based on feudal service).
- 13. Vassal: As far as medieval Europe is concerned, Vassal represented a person who was bounded to the feudal lord based on mutual obligation. There existed a symbiotic relationship between feudal lord and vassal.
- 14. Serfdom: In the context of feudal system, ‘serfdom’ represented a situation of bondage of the serf to the lands of the feudal lords and paid that originated during the high Middle Age and lasted until the nineteenth century in Europe.
- 15. Guild System: Guild signified the medieval association of craftsmen, merchants or artisans, wielding considerable power. In the aftermath of the French Revolution, restrictions were removed from the guilds.
- 16. Liberalism: Etymologically, the term ‘liberalism’ is derived from the Latin word ‘liber’, which means ‘freedom’. In the aftermath of the French Revolution, liberalism represented freedom for all individuals irrespective of classes and established equality before the law.
- 17. Suffrage: The system of suffrage means the right to vote.
- 18. Elle: The term ‘elle’ means the measure of cloth, which varied from one region to another.
- 19. Conservatism: The term ‘conservatism’ implies a political philosophical paradigm, emphasising the significance of tradition, formed institutions and customs. It intended to bring about gradual changes rather than believing in rapidity.