The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe Class 10 Notes History Chapter 1

What are the rise of nationalism in europe?

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    The rise of nationalism in other european countries

    s(early-mid nineteenth century)

    • Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms - duchies and cantons, having autonomous rule.
    • The Industrial Revolution emerged in England between 1820 and 1840.
    • After the decline of Napoleon, the European government adopted the ideals of conservation.
    • The Conservatism that dominated the European scene after 1815 gained support from Monarchy, Aristocracy and the Church.
    • The revolutionaries antagonised the conservative regimes and fought for liberty and freedom.
    • Giuseppe Mazzini formed 'Young Italy' for the purpose of uniting Italy.

    The age of revolutions (1838-48)

    • During this phase, liberalism developed in full swing.
    • The classic statements of liberalism, 'the Declaration of Rights of Men and Citizens' surfaced.
    • Brussels and Greece saw the high noon of revolutionary movements.
    • Europe became the epicentre of cultural and political movements.
    • The 1830s represented the turbulent years of economic hardships as Hunger Hardship and Popular Revolt emerged.
    • This period marked the rise of constitutionalism and the process of national unifications.
    Artists Paintings
    (1) Frederick Sorrieu The Dream of Worldwide Democratic and Social Republics
    - The pact between nations.
    (2) Andreas Rebmann The cover of German almanac.
    (3) Karl Kasper Fritz The planting of Tree of Liberty in Zweibruken, Germany.
    (4) Giacomo Mantegazza Giuseppe Mazzini and the founding of Young Europe in Brene.
    (5) Eugene Delacroix The Massacre at Chios.
    (6) Anton von Werner The proclamation of the German empire in the
    (7) Selwyn Brinton Garibaldi helping King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia-Piedmont to pull on the Boot named 'Italy'. An English caricature.
    (8) Philip Veit Germania.
    (9) Julius Hubner The fallen Germania.
    (10) Lorenz Clasen Germania guarding the Rhine.
    Eminent Thinkers/Professors and Writers Contributions
    (1) Professor Ernest Renan Delivered lecture on 'What is nation?' at the University of Sorbonne.
    (2) Professor Frederick List Delivered lecture on Zollverein at the University of Tubingen.
    (3) Philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder Claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among das volk (common people).
    (4) Pedagogue Karol Kurpinski Popularised folk dances, polonaise and Mazurka and turned them into national symbols.
    (5) Writers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm Contributed towards folk-tales and nation -buildings.
    (6) Liberal political thinker Carl Welcker Defined liberty and equality for women.
    (7) Political activist, Louis Otto-Peters Founded a women's journal and feminist political association.
    (8) English activist, Louis Otto-Peters He supported the Greek war of independence as Greece was held to be the cradle of European civilisation and it saw the cascade of ancient literature.
    Leading Figures Contributions
    (1) Napoleon Bonaparte He was a French military and political pioneer who rose to eminence during the french Revolution.
    (2) Klemens Von Metternich Metternich was the Austrian Chancellor who hosted the Vienna Congress, in 1815.
    (3) Giuseppe Mazzini He was an Italian revolutionary who launched Young Italy in 1824 and Ypung Europe in Berne in 1834.
    (4) Louis Philippe The liberal revolutionaries installed constitutional monarchy by toppling the Bourbon dynasty. Louise Philippe became the head of the constitutional monarchy.
    (5) Friedrich Wilhelm IV He was the king of Prussia.
    (6) Friedrich Wilhelm IV He was the king of Prussia.
    (7) Otto von Bismarck He was the chief minister of Prussia and the German emperor at the Palace of Versailles.
    (8) Victor Emmanuel II He was king of Sardinia from 1849 to 1861 and then the first king of Italy until 1878. He worked to free Italy from foreign control and becaome a central figure of the movement for Italian unification.
    Historians Book's Name
    (1) Georges Lefebvre French Revolution 1789-1799
    (2) Albert Soboul A short history of French Revolution, 1789-1799
    (3) E.J.Hobosbawn The Age of Revolution : Europe : 1789-1848
    (4) E.J.Hobosbawn The Age of Empire : 1875-1914
    (5) Jacob Gold Schumann The Balkan Wars, 1912-13
    1. Absolutism: In history, the term ‘absolutism’ signifies a variant of monarchical government that has centralised, autocratic and militarised apparatus. 11. Feudalism: Feudalism represents the principal social system in medieval Europe. In this system, the nobility received lands from the Crown in lieu of military service.
    2. Republic: It signifies a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives. It has a nominated President instead of a monarch. 12. Manorialism: Manorialism was a significant component of feudal society. It was characterised by the granting of legal and economic power to the Lord of the Manor (otherwise, known as fief or an estate of land, occupied based on feudal service).
    3. Liberté, égalité, fraternité: It is the national motto of France, originated from the French Revolution of 1789. 13. Vassal: As far as medieval Europe is concerned, Vassal represented a person who was bounded to the feudal lord based on mutual obligation. There existed a symbiotic relationship between feudal lord and vassal.
    4. Plebiscite: It means the direct voting of all the constituents of an electorate on a significant public question. It is also known as referendum. 14. Serfdom: In the context of feudal system, ‘serfdom’ represented a situation of bondage of the serf to the lands of the feudal lords and paid that originated during the high Middle Age and lasted until the nineteenth century in Europe.
    5. Nationalism: It is an extreme patriotic force that brings about massive changes in the political and social order of any country. 15. Guild System: Guild signified the medieval association of craftsmen, merchants or artisans, wielding considerable power. In the aftermath of the French Revolution, restrictions were removed from the guilds.
    6. Nation-State: It indicates a sovereign state in which all the citizens or subjects are bounded by factors that describe a nation, for example language or common origin. 16. Liberalism: Etymologically, the term ‘liberalism’ is derived from the Latin word ‘liber’, which means ‘freedom’. In the aftermath of the French Revolution, liberalism represented freedom for all individuals irrespective of classes and established equality before the law.
    7. Estates General: The Estates General is synony-mous to States General. It signifies legislative or consultative assembly body, representing three estates or regimes of the French society (clergymen, aristocrats and the bourgeoisie). It remained in action till 1789. 17. Suffrage: The system of suffrage means the right to vote.
    8. Bastille: The Bastille represented a fortress in Paris, Popularly known as the Bastille Saint-Antoine. It played a significant role in the internal battles of France. For most part of French history, it was used as a state prison by the French monarchs. 18. Elle: The term ‘elle’ means the measure of cloth, which varied from one region to another.
    9. Despotism: It indicates wielding of absolute power, particularly in cruel and oppressive way. 19. Conservatism: The term ‘conservatism’ implies a political philosophical paradigm, emphasising the significance of tradition, formed institutions and customs. It intended to bring about gradual changes rather than believing in rapidity.
    10. Jacobin Club: Jacobin club or Jacobins was the most popular political group which emanated from the French Revolution, it represented the ideologies of equality and radicalism.