The Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Notes History Chapter 4

What are The Age of Industrialisation?


  • A contrast between the West and the Orient is witnessed in terms of technological advancement.
  • The Orient refers to any country or region east of the Mediterranean Sea, usually a term used for Asia.
  • The association of Industrialisation with the coming up of factories is very common.

Coming up of factories

  • Earliest factories in England came up in 1730s.
  • The first symbol of new era was cotton and its production boomed in the nineteenth century.
  • Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill.
  • Machines were set up in these mills where production increased and happened smoothly too.

Pace of industrial change

  • Cotton was the leading sector where rapid growth took place till 1840s and even later.
  • The demand for iron and steel increased from 1840s onwards.
  • Technological changes occurred slowly
  • James Watt came up with the improved version of steam engine in 1781.

Hand labour and steam powerage

  • There was no dearth of labourers in Victorian Age in England.
  • As labour availability was high, industrialists faced no issues regarding high wage policies and labour shortage.


  • The first cotton mill came up in India in 1854.
  • The first jute mill came up in Bengal in 1855.
  • The Elgin mill was started in Kanpur in the 1860s.
  • Dwarkanath Tagore, Jamshedji Tata, Dinshaw Petit and Seth Hukumchand were the first investors who helped setting up initial mills and industries in India.

Markets for goodst

  • Advertisements were used even during the industrial age to lure consumers.
  • Labels were put on the cloths coming from Manchester, indicating its high quality which attracted the consumers.
  • The labels contained images of historical figures as well as gods and goddesses which appealed to the masses.
  • With the coming of Swadeshi movement, again rampant advertisements happened.
1. Orient: The term Orient indicates the regions usually on the east side of the Mediterranean Sea, usually the Asian Countries 9. Bourgeoisie: The term bourgeoisie refers to the middle or the upper middle class of the society who perceived materialistic values.
2. Proto: The term proto signals the beginning phase of something or early form of something. 10. Gomasthas: The term Gomasthas refers to an Indian agent of the English East India Company who was paid to supervise weavers and craftsmen, collect supplies and deliver finished goods to the Company at fixed rates.
3. Guilds: The term Guilds was used for a medieval association of traders, merchants and craftsmen often having similar goals and who exercised considerable control over trading activities. 11. Jobber: He was a wholesaler whose main task was to recruit workers for the English factories in India. He too was like an agent.
4. Stapler: A person who sorts and staples wool according to its fibre. 12. Sepoy: The term Sepoy is the English pronunciation for the word ‘Sipahi’, who was an Indian soldier in the Company’s Army or Police services.
5. Fuller: A person whose occupation is fulling cloth or gathers cotton. 13. Carnatic: The term Carnatic refers to the region in South India lying between the Eastern Ghats and Coromandel Coast.
6. Carding: The process through which fibre such as cotton or wool are disentangled, cleaned prior to spinning. 14. Flying Shuttle: The term flying shuttle refers to a mechanical device used for weaving, moved by ropes and pullies.
7. Breweries: The term breweries refer to factories where beer is manufactured. 15. Proto-Industrialisation: It is the phase of industrialisation that was not based on factories but rather created suitable conditions for the establishment of full industrialised cities.
8. Aristocrats: A class of people holding privileges and belonged to royal families or to the nobility. 16. Spinning Jenny: It is a machine for spinning more than one spindle, patented by James Hargreaves in 1770.