What are Biotechnology and its Applications?
Biotechnology has found various applications in therapeutics, diagnostics, GMOs, processed and nutritionally enhanced food, bioremediation, waste treatment, energy production etc.
Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture
Food production can be increased through use of biotechnology:
Objectives of Genetic Modifications
Insecticide And Pest Resistant Plants
Bt toxin gene isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis are cloned in plants to obtain insect resistant (against lepidopterans, coleopterans, dipterans) plants such as Bt cotton, Bt corn, rice, tomato, potato and soyabean.
Genes that Code Bt Toxin
Pest Resistant Plants
Strategy used to develop pest resistance against nematode Meloidegyne incognitia (infects the roots of tobacco plants) is RNA interference (RNAi). Principle Involved: Silencing of a specific mRNA due to a complementary dsRNA molecule that binds to and prevents translation of the mRNA.
Biotechnological Application in Medicine
Genetically Engineered Insulin
Animals that have manipulated DNA are known as Transgenic Animals.