Reproductive Health Class 12 Notes Biology Chapter 4 - CBSE


What are Reproductive Health?


WHO has defined as a total well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e., physical, emotional, behavioural & social.

Reproductive Health Programs

  • Family planning programmes were initiated in 1951.
  • Improved programmes: ‘Reproductive & Child Health Care Programmes’ (RCH).

How Has The Government Taken Measures?

  • By using audio-visuals & print media.
  • Sex education in schools to provide awareness
  • Rendering information about reproductive organs, adolescence, safe & hygienic sexual practices, STDs, AIDS etc.


It is a technique used to find out chromosomal abnormalities in embryo by using amniotic fluid. It is misused to determine the sex of foetus.

Population Explosion & Birth Control

  • A rapid decline in death rate, MMR & IMR as an increase in number of people in reproducible age are the reason for population expansion.
  • To control this: People were motivated for small families, raising of marriageable age of the female from 18 yrs to 21 yrs, use of contraceptive methods.

Side Effects Of Contraceptive Method

  • Abdominal pain, nausea, irregular menstrual bleeding, breast cancer.


Voluntary termination of pregnancy before full term is called Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) or Induced Abortion. MTP is done to get rid of unwanted pregnancies.


  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / Venereal Diseases or infections which are transmitted sexually through sexual intercourse. e.g. gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, AIDS. STDs can be prevented by avoiding sex with unknown or multiple partners.


Assisted Reproductive Technologies are special techniques that assist couples to have children. Various types of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) include:

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

  • Ova from the wife / donor and sperms from the husband / donor are collected and are induced to form the zygote under sterile conditions in the lab.
  • The zygote or early embryos could then be transferred into the fallopian tube (ZIFT -zygote intra fallopian transfer).

Contraceptive Methods

Ideal Contraceptive: User friendly, effective, easily available, least side effects and do not interfere with the sexual desire.

Natural Methods

  • Avoids meeting of sperm & ovum.
  • Periodic Abstinence: Avoiding coitus from day 10-17 of menstrual cycle when ovulation is expected.
  • Withdrawal or coitus interrupts: Male partner withdraws his penis from vagina before ejaculation.
  • Lactational amenorrhea: Absence of menstrual cycle during first six months of intense lactational period.

Barrier Methods

Sperms and ovum are prevented from physically meeting with the help of some barriers such as:

  • Condoms: Thin rubber/latex sheath. e.g. Nirodh.
  • Diaphragms, Cervical caps & vaults are all barriers (made of rubber) to cover cervix.

Intra Ut erine Devices (IUD’S)

Devices inserted in uterus. e.g. Cu T, Cu7, Multiload 375, Lippes loop.

Oral Pills

  • They are very effective with less side effects.
  • Saheli - new oral contraceptive is a non-steroidal preparation. It is a ‘once a week’ pill with high contraceptive value.

Surgical Method

  • In male: vasectomy, where the vas deferens is cut or tied.
  • In Female: tubectomy, where a small part of the fallopian tube is cut or tied up.

Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer (ZIFT)

The zygote with 8 blastomeres can be transferred into the fallopian tube.

Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

Sperm is directly injected into the ovum to form an embryo in the lab.

Gamete Intra Fallopian Tube (GIFT)

Transfer of an ovum collected from a donor into the fallopian tube of another female who cannot produce ovum.

Artificial Insemination (AI)

In the technique, the semen collected either from the husband or a healthy donor is artificially introduced into the vagina or into the uterus. It is used when sperm count is low.