Development Experience of India Class 12 Notes Economics - CBSE

Unit : 8

What Are Development Experience Of India ?

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    Common Features Of India, China And Pakistan

    • All the three countries belong to Asian continent.
    • All the three countries are close neighbours of each other.
    • India has got the common borders with China as well as Pakistan.
    • All the three Nations started their journey on the path of development almost at the same time or within the same decade.
    • In the inception all the three countries adopted the planned structure of development.
    • Till the 1980 all the three countries had almost similar growth rates and per capita incomes.

    Comparison Between India, China And Pakistan

    Population and Geographical Area

    • China is the most populous country on the globe followed by India. Pakistan is the sixth largest country in terms of population.
    • Among all the three countries, China has the largest geographical area that is why its density is the lowest among all these countries.
    • Population growth has been highest in Pakistan followed by India and China.
    • Fertility rate is lowest in China while it is highest in Pakistan.


    • The state of urbanization is highest in China followed by Pakistan and India.

    GDP and Growth Rate

    • China's GDP as measured by purchasing power parity (PPP) method is the second largest in the world, i.e., $ 22.5 trillion whereas India's GDP is $ 9.03 trillion while Pakistan GDP is $ 0.94 trillion.
    • During 1980-90, China achieved the highest growth rate of 10.3% followed by Pakistan and then India. But during 2015-17 India achieved the highest growth rate of 7.3% followed by China and Pakistan.

    Agriculture and Industry

    • In China's economy, the share of agriculture in Gross Value Added was just 7% in 2018-19 while only 26% of its workforce was engaged in agriculture. While in India, the share of agriculture in gross value added was 16% but 43% of its workforce was engaged in agriculture. In Pakistan, the share of agriculture in gross value added was 24% and the engagement of the workforce was 41%.
    • In China, industries contributed to GVA by 41% and employed 28% of the workforce. In India the industry employed 25% of the workforce and contributed approximately 30% to the gross value added. In Pakistan, the share of industry in gross value added was 19% and the employment of workforce was 24%.


    • In China, service sector contributed 52% to the GVA and employed 46% of the workforce. In India the service sector contributed 54% to the GVA and employed 32% of its workforce. In Pakistan, the service sector contributed 57% to its GVA and employed approximately 35% of its workforce.

    Human Development Indicators

    • When we look at certain human development indicators during 2017-2019 such as human development index, HDI rank, life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, gross national income per capita, percentage of people living below poverty line, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, population using at least basic drinking water source and percentage of undernourished children, we find that China has done quite better in comparison to India while India has done better than Pakistan in all these areas.


    • As far as certain indicators like population using at least basic sanitation, we find China to be better placed than India and Pakistan who were at the same level.