Unit : 4
What Are Government Budget And The Economy ?
It refers to the estimation of the total receipts and total expenditure of the government for the next fiscal year.
Objectives of Government Budget
- Balanced regional Growth
- Higher GDP Growth
- Reduction of inequalities of income and wealth
- Generating employment opportunities
- Stabilizing Economic Activities
- Reallocation of Resources
Components of Government Budget
- Revenue budget
- Revenue Receipts
These are the receipts which do not create any liability or reduce the assets of the government. Revenue receipts of the government include tax receipts and non-tax
• Income tax
• Corporation tax
• Estate duty
• Gift tax
• Custom duty
• Goods and services tax
• Excise duty
• Sales tax, etc
• Special assessment
• Income from public enterprises
• Grants and donations, etc.
Those expenditures which do not create any asset nor do they reduce the liability of the government.
• Salaries of government employees
• Interest Payment
• Defence and transfer payments.
These are the receipts that either create a liability or reduce government assets. The various constituents of capital receipts are recovery of loans, borrowings and receipts from disinvestment etc.
• Recovery of loans
• Borrowings and receipts
Expenditures of the government either create an asset or reduce the liability of the government.
For example, expenditure on acquiring land for road and constructing building, buying machinery and equipment and loans to other government etc.
• Expenditure on acquiring land for road and constructing builiding.
• Buying machinery and equipments
• Loans to other governments, etc.
- Interest payment subsidies
- Salaries of government employees
- Defence and transfer payments
It refers to the expenses incurred by the government for the maintenance of the government and to preserve the welfare of the society as a whole.
- Plan Expenditure
It refers to the government expenditure which relates to a particular plan and programs of the development of the government.
- Non-plan Expenditures
These are the expenditures which are incurred on the heads which are not included in plans of development of the governments.
Types of Budget
- Balanced Budget
It takes place when the total expenditure of the government is equal to the total receipts.
Total Receipts = Total Expenditure
- Surplus Budget
It takes place when the total expenditure of the government is less than the total receipts.
Total Receipts > Total Expenditure
- Budgetary Deficit
It is a situation when the total expenditure of the government is in excess of the total receipts.
Total Receipts < Total Expenditure
Revenue deficit refers to a situation when the government revenue expenditure is in excess of the revenue receipts.
Fiscal deficit is a situation when the total government expenditure is in excess of total government receipts other than the borrowings.
Primary deficit refers to the difference between fiscal deficit and interest payment.