Chapter : 2

What Are Kings, Farmers And Towns ?

  • Inscriptions are the written text generally on the hard surfaces that includes stones, potteries or several metal surfaces.
  • The two earliest scripts that were deciphered by the East India Company were Brahmi and Kharoshti script.
  • James Prinsep was an officer of the East India Company who served in the mint section of the company. He led to the decipherment of several scripts from ancient India.
  • Mahajanapadas were the largest and most powerful territorial units during the period of 600 BCE and 600 CE.
    There total number was sixteen.
  • The earliest capital of the Magadha was Rajagriha. The capital was later shifted to the city of Pataliputra.
  • The five major political centres of power in Mauryan Empire were Pataliputra, Taxila, Ujjayini, Tosali and Suvarnagari.
  • According to Ashoka Dharma, we should show respect towards our elders and generosity towards the Brahmins.
  • The Southern provinces in India were controlled by three powerful kingdoms of Cholas, Chera and Pandyas.
  • Prashastis were the inscriptions that were written in the praise of the Kings. They were generally associated with the Gupta period.
  • Harishena served as the court poet of Samudragupta. He composed the Allahabad Pillar Inscription in Sanskrit.
  • Prabhavati Gupta was the daughter of Chandragupta II.
  • Kings had the authority to collect taxes from the common people. They were also allowed to take tributes from the cultivators and traders.
  • They gave lands to the religious institutions and to the Brahamanas to obtain legitimacy for their rule from them.
  • Kushanas ruled over the territories extending from the Central Asia to the North Western territories between 100 BCE to 100 CE.
  • Books like Panchatantra and Jatakas mentioned stories related to the lives and events of the ordinary people.
  • The famous book Harshacharita was written by Banabhatta. The book is the biography of the ruler of Kannauj ‘Harshavardhana.’
  • Mathura was a center for commercial, political as well as cultural activities which led to the increase of its relevance.
  • Suvarnagiri also known as the golden mountains, was important due to the availability of gold mines in the region.
  • The most of the Ashokan inscriptions were written in the Prakrit language. The script of the Prakrit language was Brahmi script.
  • The introduction of the two new religions Buddhism and Jainism in fifth century B.C also changed the social structure of the society.
  • Gahapati was the term used for the individual who exercised control over the resources of a household that include material resources like land and living resources like women, slaves, children.
  • The participation of women in the administrative and economic activities during ancient period was very less.
  • Guilds were the collective organisation of the craftsmen and other merchants sharing common interest.