Forest And Wildlife Class 10 Notes Geography: Chapter 2

What are Forest and Wildlife?

Introduction

We share this planet with millions of other living beings, starting from micro-organisms and bacteria, lichens to banyan trees, elephants and blue whales. We humans along with all living organisms form a complex web of ecological system in which we are only a part and very much dependent on this system for our own existence.

Conservation of forest and wildlife in india

In the 1960s and 1970s, Conservationists demanded a national wildlife protection programme. The india wildlife (Protection) Act was implemented in 1972, with various provision for protecting habitats. An All-India List of Protected species was also published. The thrust of the programme was towards protecting the remainning population of certain endangered species.

The central and many state governments have established national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. The central government has also announced several projects for protecting specific animals which are gravely threatened, including the tiger, the one-horned rhinoceros, the Kashmir stag, etc.

Community and Conservation

In some areas of India, local communities are struggling to conserve the forests in order to secure their own livelihood, and a few instances of this struggle are :

  • In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, villagers have fought against mining by citing the Wildlife Protection Act.
  • In many areas, villagers themselves are protecting habitats and explicitly and rejecting government involvement. The inhabitants of five villages in the Alwar districts of Rajasthan have declared 1,200 hectares as the Bhairodev Dakav 'Sonchuri', declaring their own set of rules and regulation which do not allow hunting or any outside encroachments.
  • 1. Biosphere: Part of the earth which is covered by living organisms, both plants and animals.
  • 2. Ecosystem: An integrated unit consisting of the community of living organisms and the physical environment.
  • 3. Flora: Plants of a particular region or period are referred to as flora.
  • 4. Fauna: Species of animals are known as fauna.
  • 5. Forest: Extensive area covered by trees.
  • 6. Wildlife Sanctuary: A reserved area for preserving.
  • 7. The Indian Wildlife Act: It was an act implemented in 1972, with various provisions for protecting natural habitats.
  • 8. Reserved Forests: These are the most valuable forests as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources are concerned.
  • 9. Chipko Movement: It was a movement launched by the people of the Himalayas against deforestation.