Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Geography: Chapter 6

What are Manufacturing Industries?

Importance of manufacturing

  • Agriculture forms the backbone of a country and it helps in its modernisation.
  • Export of manufactured products brings in foreign exchange.
  • The substances which take part in a chemical reaction are called reactants. The reactants are written on the left hand side. The new substances produced as a result of chemical reaction are called products. The products are written on the right hand side.
  • Countries are considered to prosper if they transform their raw materials into finished goods in large numbers.

Ideal location for industry

  • Place where raw materials are available easily at low cost.
  • Site where cost of production will be comparatively low.
  • Place where distribution cost will be low.
  • Finally location of factory is decided.

Control of environmental degradationindustrial

  • Reusing and recycling of water.
  • Rainwater Harvesting.
  • Treatment of hot water before releasing it in rivers and ponds. Treatment can be done in three phases i.e., Primary, Secondary and Tertiary treatment.
(1) Manufacturing industries SAIL and Tata Steel
(2) Agro based industries Textile industry and Sugar industry
(3) Mineral based industries SAIL and Tata Steel
(4) Small scale industries Jute industry and Sugar industry
(5) Large scale industries Burn Standard Company and Cement Corporation of India.
(6) Public sector industries Burn Standard Company and Cement Corporation of India
(7) Cooperative sector industries Amul and IEFCO
(8) Cotton textile industries Raymond Ltd. and Grasim Industries Ltd
(9) Sugar industries KM Sugar Mills and Piccadilly Agro
(10) Iron and Steel industries Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. and Tata Steel
1. Basic Industries : Industries which supply their products or materials to manufacture other goods like iron and steel, etc., are known as basic or key industries. 9. Organic Chemicals : Organic chemicals include petrochemicals, which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals.
2. Consumer Industries : The industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers, such as sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans, etc. 10. Manufacturing : Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials into more valuable products is called Manufacturing.
3. Private Sector Industries : Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. For example—Tata Steel, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries, etc. 11. Agro-based Industries : Industries based on agricultural raw materials. For example–cotton textiles, jute textiles, woolen textiles, silk textiles, synthetic textiles, sugar industry.
4. Joint Sector Industries : Joint sector industries are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by the public and private sectors. 12. Mineral-based Industries : Industries using minerals as their raw materials like iron and steel, cement, chemical industries, aluminium smelting, copper smelting, fertilizer industry, etc.
5. Heavy Industries : These industries use heavy and bulky raw materials. 13. Small Scale Industries : In the process of manufacturing, production and servicing in these industries are done in small scale. The total investment on such industry does not exceed ` 1 crore.
6. Light Industries : These industries use light raw materials. 14. Large Scale Industries : In the process of manufacturing production and servicing in these industries are alone in large scale. The total investment on such industry more than ` 1 crore.
7. NMCC : National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council was set up by the government to provide a continuing forum for policy dialogue to energise and sustain the growth of manufacturing industries in India. 15. Public Sector Industries : Public sector industries are owned and operated by the government. For example–SAIL.
8. National Jute Policy : National Jute Policy was formulated in the year 2005 with the objective of increasing productivity, improving quality, ensuring good prices to the jute farmers and enhancing the yield per year.