Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Geography: Chapter 6

What are Manufacturing Industries?

Importance of manufacturing

  • Agriculture forms the backbone of a country and it helps in its modernisation.
  • Export of manufactured products brings in foreign exchange.
  • The substances which take part in a chemical reaction are called reactants. The reactants are written on the left hand side. The new substances produced as a result of chemical reaction are called products. The products are written on the right hand side.
  • Countries are considered to prosper if they transform their raw materials into finished goods in large numbers.

Ideal location for industry

  • Place where raw materials are available easily at low cost.
  • Site where cost of production will be comparatively low.
  • Place where distribution cost will be low.
  • Finally location of factory is decided.

Control of environmental degradationindustrial

  • Reusing and recycling of water.
  • Rainwater Harvesting.
  • Treatment of hot water before releasing it in rivers and ponds. Treatment can be done in three phases i.e., Primary, Secondary and Tertiary treatment.
  • 1. Basic Industries : Industries which supply their products or materials to manufacture other goods like iron and steel, etc., are known as basic or key industries.
  • 2. Consumer Industries : The industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers, such as sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans, etc.
  • 3. Private Sector Industries : Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. For example—Tata Steel, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries, etc.
  • 4. Joint Sector Industries : Joint sector industries are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by the public and private sectors.
  • 5. Heavy Industries : These industries use heavy and bulky raw materials.
  • 6. Light Industries : These industries use light raw materials.
  • 7. NMCC : National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council was set up by the government to provide a continuing forum for policy dialogue to energise and sustain the growth of manufacturing industries in India.
  • 8. National Jute Policy : National Jute Policy was formulated in the year 2005 with the objective of increasing productivity, improving quality, ensuring good prices to the jute farmers and enhancing the yield per year.
  • 9. Organic Chemicals : Organic chemicals include petrochemicals, which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals.
  • 10. Manufacturing : Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials into more valuable products is called Manufacturing.
  • 11. Agro-based Industries : Industries based on agricultural raw materials. For example–cotton textiles, jute textiles, woolen textiles, silk textiles, synthetic textiles, sugar industry.
  • 12. Mineral-based Industries : Industries using minerals as their raw materials like iron and steel, cement, chemical industries, aluminium smelting, copper smelting, fertilizer industry, etc.
  • 13. Small Scale Industries : In the process of manufacturing, production and servicing in these industries are done in small scale. The total investment on such industry does not exceed ` 1 crore.
  • 14. Large Scale Industries : In the process of manufacturing production and servicing in these industries are alone in large scale. The total investment on such industry more than ` 1 crore.
  • 15. Public Sector Industries : Public sector industries are owned and operated by the government. For example–SAIL.