Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes Geography: Chapter 5

What are Minerals and Energy Resources?

Non-metallic minerals and rock mineralschapter

  • Mica is an example of non-metallic mineral and is found in the form of plates or leaves. It can be black, green, red, yellow, clear or brown in colour.
  • Limestones are example of rock minerals which are composed of calcium and magnesium carbonates. It is a raw material for cement industries.
(1) States where mica is found Jharkhand and Rajasthan
(2) States where copper is found Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh
(3) State where managanese ore is produced in abundance Madhya Pradesh
(4) States where iron one is found Karnataka and Odisha
(5) States where limestone is found Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan
(6) States where coal is found in abundance Jharkhand and Meghalaya
(7) State where petroleum production is very high Gujarat
(8) Multipurpose projects Bhakra Nagal and Damodar Valley Corporation
(9) States where uranium is found Jharkhand and Rajasthan
(10) States where wind farm is located Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat
1. Geologist : A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes that shape it. 12. Non-Conventional Sources : In order to meet the energy demand of increased population, the scientists developed alternate non-conventional sources of energy, which would be renewable and provide a pollution free environment. For example—wind energy, solar energy and tidal energy.
2. Veins and Lodes : In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger ones are called lodes. 13. Nuclear Energy : The fuel used in nuclear power plants is Uranium, which costs less than coal. Nuclear power plants are located in Kota (Rajasthan), Naroura (U.P.) and Kalapakkam (Chennai).
3. Placer Deposits : A placer deposit or placer is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity and separated during sedimentary processes. 14. Solar Energy : This is the energy that is produced by the sunlight. The photovoltaic cells are used to convert solar radiation based energy into electrical energy. The energy is utilised for cooking and distillation of water.
4. Magnetite : A black magnetic mineral, found in igneous and metamorphic rocks and as a separate deposit it is called Magnetite. A black magnetic mineral, found in igneous and metamorphic rocks and as a separate deposit it is called Magnetite. 15. Wind Energy : This kind of energy is generated by harnessing the power of wind and is mostly used in operating water pumps for irrigation purposes. India is the second largest country to generate wind power.
5. Mica : Mica is a shiny silicate mineral with a layered structure, found as minute scales in granite and other rocks, or as crystals. It is used as a thermal or electrical insulator. 16. Biogas : Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.
6. Hematite : A very common mineral, iron oxide, occurring in steel grey to black crystals and in red earthy masses is called Hematite. 17. Tidal Energy : The energy that is generated by exploiting the tidal waves of the sea is known as Tidal energy. This source is yet to be tapped due to the lack of cost-effective technology.
7. Siderite : Siderite is also called chalybite. It is a common mineral, iron carbonate, usually occurring in yellowish to deep brown cleavable masses : a minor ore of iron. 18. Geo Thermal Energy : Geo thermal energy is heat energy that is generated and stored under the earth’s surface.
8. Aluminium : White metallic element, light in weight, ductile, malleable, and not readily corroded or tarnished, occurring in igneous rock, shale, clay, and mostly soil, is called Aluminium. 19. Minerals : Minerals are homogeneous, natural- occurring substances with a definite internal structure.
9. Limonite : An amorphous brownish secondary mineral consisting of a mixture of hydrous ferric oxides is known as Limonite. It is important as an iron ore. 20. Rock : Rocks are combinations of homogeneous substances called minerals.
10. Bauxite : Bauxite is an amorphous clayey rock that is the chief commercial ore of aluminium. It consists largely of hydrated alumina with variable proportions of iron oxide. 21. Ore : Accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements is known as ore.
11. Conventional Sources : The energy sources which cannot be compensated, once these are used (after their exploitation) are termed as Conventional energy sources. This source of energy is also called non-renewable energy. For example—coal, petroleum and natural gas. 22. Beds or Layers : Beds refer to the bottom of the suit. Layers, refer to the levels of the suit. Beds and layers are formed due to deposition/accumulation of minerals in different horizontal strata.