Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes Geography: Chapter 5

What are Minerals and Energy Resources?

Non-metallic minerals and rock mineralschapter

  • Mica is an example of non-metallic mineral and is found in the form of plates or leaves. It can be black, green, red, yellow, clear or brown in colour.
  • Limestones are example of rock minerals which are composed of calcium and magnesium carbonates. It is a raw material for cement industries.
  • 1. Geologist : A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes that shape it.
  • 2. Veins and Lodes : In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger ones are called lodes.
  • 3. Placer Deposits : A placer deposit or placer is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity and separated during sedimentary processes.
  • 4. Magnetite : A black magnetic mineral, found in igneous and metamorphic rocks and as a separate deposit it is called Magnetite.
  • 5. Mica : Mica is a shiny silicate mineral with a layered structure, found as minute scales in granite and other rocks, or as crystals. It is used as a thermal or electrical insulator.
  • 6. Hematite : A very common mineral, iron oxide, occurring in steel grey to black crystals and in red earthy masses is called Hematite.
  • 7. Siderite : Siderite is also called chalybite. It is a common mineral, iron carbonate, usually occurring in yellowish to deep brown cleavable masses : a minor ore of iron.
  • 8. Aluminium : White metallic element, light in weight, ductile, malleable, and not readily corroded or tarnished, occurring in igneous rock, shale, clay, and mostly soil, is called Aluminium.
  • 9. Limonite : An amorphous brownish secondary mineral consisting of a mixture of hydrous ferric oxides is known as Limonite. It is important as an iron ore.
  • 10. Bauxite : Bauxite is an amorphous clayey rock that is the chief commercial ore of aluminium. It consists largely of hydrated alumina with variable proportions of iron oxide.
  • 11. Conventional Sources : The energy sources which cannot be compensated, once these are used (after their exploitation) are termed as Conventional energy sources. This source of energy is also called non-renewable energy. For example—coal, petroleum and natural gas.
  • 12. Non-Conventional Sources : In order to meet the energy demand of increased population, the scientists developed alternate non-conventional sources of energy, which would be renewable and provide a pollution free environment. For example—wind energy, solar energy and tidal energy.
  • 13. Nuclear Energy : The fuel used in nuclear power plants is Uranium, which costs less than coal. Nuclear power plants are located in Kota (Rajasthan), Naroura (U.P.) and Kalapakkam (Chennai).
  • 14. Solar Energy : This is the energy that is produced by the sunlight. The photovoltaic cells are used to convert solar radiation based energy into electrical energy. The energy is utilised for cooking and distillation of water.
  • 15. Wind Energy : This kind of energy is generated by harnessing the power of wind and is mostly used in operating water pumps for irrigation purposes. India is the second largest country to generate wind power.
  • 16. Biogas : Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.
  • 17. Tidal Energy : The energy that is generated by exploiting the tidal waves of the sea is known as Tidal energy. This source is yet to be tapped due to the lack of cost-effective technology.
  • 18. Geo Thermal Energy : Geo thermal energy is heat energy that is generated and stored under the earth’s surface.
  • 19. Minerals : Minerals are homogeneous, natural- occurring substances with a definite internal structure.
  • 20. Rock : Rocks are combinations of homogeneous substances called minerals.
  • 21. Ore : Accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements is known as ore.
  • 22. Beds or Layers : Beds refer to the bottom of the suit. Layers, refer to the levels of the suit. Beds and layers are formed due to deposition/accumulation of minerals in different horizontal strata.