Q What was Zollverein? What were its wider implications?

Ans The Zollverein signified German customs union, which represented an alliance of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories. Following Zollverein treaties, the Zollverein was organised and formally launched on 1st January, 1834. By 1866, the Zollverein involved most of the German states.

The establishment of the Zollverein was the first paradigm in history in which autonomous states had mastered a complete economic unity without the simultaneous formation of a political federation or union.

Q Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?

Ans By the 1848 revolution of the liberals we mean the revolution spearheaded by the educated middle classes or bourgeois intelligentsia of Europe. Events of February 1848 in France spawned massive changes. They led to the abdication of

Q How did nationalism and the idea of nation-state emerge?

  • Ans 1. Nationalism and the idea of the nation-state emerged within the culturally and regionally diverse groups of Europe.
  • 2. Owing to industrialisation, the European society transformed and the new middle class came into prominence.
  • 3. It included labour , working class populace, businessmen, industrialists and professionals.
  • 4. The educated and liberal population of the bourgeois intelligentsia united culturally diverse sections of European society.
  • 5. Therefore, nationalism culminated in the advent of the concept of nation and national identity.

Q Summarise the attributes of a nation, as Renan understands them. Why, in his views, are nations important?

Ans Ernest Renan was an influential French philosopher who delivered a lecture on ‘what is nation?’ at the University of Sorbonne in 1882. According to Renan, the attributes of a nation are enumerated as follows:

  • 1. A nation is the manifestation of strenuous efforts, sacrifices and patriotic devotion.
  • 2. The concept of nation is hinged on the social capita, including heroic legacy, great men and glory.
  • 3. Nation is consisted of people who have whole-heartedly performed for the sake of the country.
  • 4. Nation manifests a large-scale solidarity among its people.
  • 5. In a nation, only the inhabitants preserve the right to consult anything.
  • 6. A nation does not annex or hold onto a control against its will.

Q Describe the political ends that Friedrich List hopes to achieve through economic measures.

Ans Professor Friedrich hopes that economic liberalism and reforms would engender national sentiments. These national feelings and attributes are enumerated as follows:

  • 1. Freedom for individuals.
  • 2. Emphasis on the concept of egalitarianism i.e. everyone is equal before the law.
  • 3. Inviolability of private property.
  • 4. Concept of forming government by voting system.
  • 5. Demise of aristocracy and clerical privileges.
  • 6. Establishment of constitutional and representative government through parliament.

In the opinion of Friedrich List, the economic reforms would spawn liberalism.

Q Discuss the importance of language and popular tradition in the creation of national identity

Ans In this section, the significance of language and popular tradition in the development of national identity has been discussed below:

  • 1. The language and popular traditions of a specific region exhibit the feelings of shared past, and collective identity of the people.
  • 2. Attributes like language and popular tradition should bind all the people by the thread of togetherness and pride.
  • 3. These aspects manifest the cultural tradition and national sentiment.
  • Speaking briefly , language and tradition spawn collective identity.

Q Describe the cause of the Silesian weaver’s uprising. Comment on the viewpoint of the journalist Wilhelm Wolff.

Ans The perspective of the journalist Wilhelm Wolff are as follows:

  • 1. The main reason behind the Silesian weaver’s uprising was lower payment for the accomplishment of job.
  • 2. Contractor who manufactured raw materials and procured finished textiles from the weavers paid less money for the service of the weavers.
  • 3. The weavers were tortured mercilessly if they asked for their dues. This resulted in logical agitation and uprising by the weavers against the contractor.
  • 4. The perspective of the journalist Wilhelm Wolff, was that the hardship of the workers was colossus and the contractor made their lives infernal. In this context, the viewpoint of journalist was apposite and logical.

Q Compare the positions on the question of women’s rights voiced by the three writers (Carl Welcker, Louis Otto-Peters and an anonymous reader) cited above. What do they reveal about liberal ideology?

Ans The three writers Carl Welcker, Louis Otto-Peters and an anonymous reader, manifested three different perspectives about the women’s rights.

These are enumerated as follows:

  • 1. The first writer Carl Welcker was a liberal political thinker. He was vocal about the functions of the two sexes. He believed that equality between the sexes would only spawn harmony.
  • 2. The second writer , Louis Otto-Peters believed that women should be given equal rights.
  • 3. The third writer (an anonymous reader) favoured the question of women’s rights. By citing a comparative study, he discussed the political rights of both men and women.
  • 4. All three writers claimed that there were massive stratifications in the liberal ideology. They were divided on the question of women’s rights.

Q What is this caricaturist trying to depict ?

caricaturist

Ans This caricature aims to depict the true characteristics of the conservative monarchies of the nineteenth century Europe. As a matter of fact, the ideals of liberalism and individual freedom did not flourish. In this picture, the club involved thinkers are they sitting in a club but they do not have the power to express their thoughts as reflected by the cloth tied on their mouths. This is the most effective way to project that the people did not have the freedom of thought or speech in those times.

Q Describe the caricature. How does it represent the relationship between Bismarck and the elected deputies of parliament? What interpretation of democratic processes is the artist trying to convey?

  • Ans 1. In this caricature, Bismarck is holding and waving a hunter on elected representatives in the air, which is a symbol of autocracy. It demonstrates that the rest of the elected representative of parliament representatives are fearful of him.
  • 2. In order to show him reverence, the representatives bowed down under the benches of the parliament.
  • 3. The caricature puts Bismarck on a higher pedestal and shows that he is ruling the roost of the parliament.
  • 4. The revolutionary artist is trying to narrate democracy through a sarcastic caricature. It shows that democracy existed for the sake of name. In reality, the power and influence of Bismarck ruled the parliament.

Q The artist has portrayed Garibaldi as holding on to the base of the boot, so that the king of Sardinia-Piedmont can enter it from the top. Look at the map of Italy once more. What statement is this caricature making?

Ans According to the picture, the boots epitomized the kingdom of two Sicily that remained in Southern Italy. Garibaldi succeeded in gaining these kingdoms and subsequently, handed over them to king of Sardinia-Piedmont, Victor Emmanuel II. He was proclaimed the emperor of the united Italy. The picture shows the role played by Garibaldi in unifying Italy.

Q With the help of the table below, identify the attributes of Veit’s Germania and interpret the symbolic meaning of the painting. In an earlier allegorical rendering of 1836, Veit had portrayed the Kaiser’s crown at the place where he has now located the broken chain. Explain the significance of this change.

Attribute Implication
Broken Chains Sign of emancipation or being freed.
Breastplate with eagle Symbol of German Empire- indicating strength.
Crown of Oak leaves Heroism.
Sword Readiness to fight.
Olive Branch around the sword Willingness to make peace.
Black, red and gold tri-colour Flag of the liberal-nationalists in 1848, banned by the Dukes of the German states.
Rays of the rising sun Beginning of a new era.

Ans The portrait of Germania by Philip Veit represents the emergence of the German nation. The ray of the rising sun indicates the glimmering inception of a new era. The sword signifies the readiness to fight with the neighbouring region. The olive branch around the sword held by Germania signifies the willingness to make peace. The presence of black, red and gold tri-colour indicates the flag of the liberal-nationalism in 1848, banned by the Dukes of the German states. The crown of Oak leaves or festoon worn by Germania is the manifestation of heroism. The presence of breastplate with eagle worn by Germania indicates the strength of German Empire. Therefore, all the attributes are present in the portrait of Germania by Philip Veit.