Q Explain what is meant by protoindustrialisation.
Ans The term ‘proto’ refers to the first or nascent form of something. By the term ‘proto-industrialisation’, we mean the period in which the European countries produced goods for the foreign markets on a wider scale. This phase started before the development of factories in the European countries. In the proto-industrial period, hand-made products were made for the international market.
Q Why did some industrialists in nineteenth century Europe prefer hand labour over machines ?
Ans In the nineteenth-century Europe, some British industrialists prioritised hand labour instead of machine labour. The points are enumerated as follows:
Q How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?
Q Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?
Q Explain the following:
Q Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.
Ans In this segment, I intend to write an article for an encyclopedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Britain had successfully regulated and dominated the trade in cotton (raw material), cotton fabrics of coarser or line quality. Britain had set up markets throughout the colonies for selling the Manchester and Liverpool made cotton textiles that were relatively cheaper than hand-made cotton textile of colonised countries. By using an imperialist tool, Britain had found ways to garner huge amount of profit from the trade in cotton. Due to an ardent process of colonisation. Indian weavers became indebted to the East India Company. At the same time, the Gomasthas compounded the problems of Indian weavers. With the advent of Industrialisation in England, the cotton textiles mills and factories permeated the country. Therefore, England carved a unique space in the global economic history for more than five centuries due to the presence of cotton trade.
Q Write True or False against each statement.