Q Read the Source carefully. Do you agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism? Can you define communalism in a different way?
I have no hesitation in declaring that if the principle that the Indian Muslim is entitled to full and free development on the lines of his own culture and tradition in his own Indian home lands is recognized as the basis of a permanent communal settlement, he will be ready to stake his all for the freedom of India. The principle that each group is entitled for free development on its own lines is not inspired by any feeling of narrow communalism. A community which is inspired by feelings of ill-will towards other communities is low and ignoble. I entertain the highest respect for the customs, laws, religions and social institutions of other communities. Nay, it is my duty according to the teachings of the Quran, even to defend their places of worship, if need be. Even though I love the communal group which is the source of life and behavior and which has formed me what I am by giving me its religion, its literature, it’s thought, its culture and thereby its whole past as a living operative factor in my present consciousness. Communalism in its higher aspect, is indispensable to the formation of a harmonious whole in a country like India. The units of Indian society are not territorial as in European countries. The principle of European democracy can-not be applied to India without recognising the fact of communal groups.
The Muslim demand for the separate electorates are contrary to the spirit of true nationalism, because he understands the word ‘nation’ a kind of universal amalgamation in which no communal entity ought to retain its private individuality. Such a state of things, however, does not exist. India is a land of racial and religious variety. Add to this the general economic inferiority of the Muslims, their enormous debt, especially in the Punjab, and their insufficient majorities in some of the provinces, as at present constituted and you will begin to see clearly the meaning of our anxiety to retain separate electorates.
(i) Do you agree with the Iqbal’s idea of communalism? Can you define communalism in a different way?
Ans (i) No, I do not agree with Iqbal’s notion of communalism. He thought that it was the search for a community to develop along its own lines. He felt that religion is the basis on which thought process is based. He felt that religion binds people in one thread. It gives person a unified culture and literature. In his opinion, Hindus and Muslims should live as separate entities in the country. This line of thought support separatism and subsequently led to the partition of the country.
Q Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act ?
Q Explain some economic effects of the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Q Why did Mahatma Gandhi ji feel the need to launch a broad based movement in 1920 ?
Give any three reasons.
Q Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement ?
Ans Mahatma Gandhi aimed to call off Non-Cooperation Movement because the movement adopted a violent turn at Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh (U.P.). At this place, people set the police station ablaze in which 22 policemen were burnt alive. Gandhi Ji wanted to cease violence at any cost.
Q What is meant by the idea of Satyagraha?
Q How did the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India?
Q What were the circumstances which led to Jallianwala Bagh incident? Describe in brief the reaction of the people immediately after the incident.
Ans The Rowlatt Act (1919) was passed by the British government despite the unified opposition of the Indian members. This Act empowered the government to subdue political activities and detain any person without trial for two years. Gandhiji wanted non-violent civil disobedience against unjust laws.
Rallies were organised in varied cities. Enraged by the popular revolt, British administration imposed Martial Law in Amritsar. On 13th April, 1919, General Dyer killed innocent people who assembled in Jallianwala Bagh. The news spread like a wildfire. As a matter of fact, hundreds and thousands of people took to the streets and there were strikes, clashes and mass protest.
Q Who launched the Khilafat Movement? Why was the movement launched?
Ans The Khilafat issue was initiated by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. This issue related to restore the power of their khalifa in Ottoman Turkey, which was vanished in World War I.
Later this issue incooperate with Non-cooperation movement in Nagpur Session 1920. Because Gandhiji knew that there should be communal harmony required for nationwide movement.
Q Mention three reasons for which the rich peasant communities took active participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Ans Three reasons for which the affluent peasant communities took part in the Civil Disobedience Movement are enumerated as follows:
Q Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Ans Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism because:
Q Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
Ans There was no consensus of opinions among the political leaders related to the aspect of separate electorate. The reasons are as follows:
Q Why did various classes and groups of Indians participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Ans Diverse classes and social groups of Indians took part in the Civil Disobedience Movement spearheaded by Mahatma Gandhi in 1930. Different categories of people joined the movement based on their needs and aspirations.
Q Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.
Ans Bharat Mata is depicted as an ascetic figure. She looks demure, composed, divine and spiritual. She is portrayed as disseminating learning, clothing and food. On the other hand, mala puts an emphasis on her ascetic quality.
At the other end of the spectrum, Germania, the female incarnate of Germany is projected as a heroic figure. She did not stand for any particular woman in real life. She underscored the abstract idea of the nation as a concrete form. She is the embodiment of the strength of the German empire.
Q Write a newspaper report on:
(i) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
(ii) The Simon Commission.
Ans The portrait of Germania by Philip Veit represents the emergence of the German nation. The ray of the rising sun indicates the glimmering inception of a new era. The sword signifies the readiness to fight with the neighbouring region. The olive branch around the sword held by Germania signifies the willingness to make peace. The presence of black, red and gold tri-colour indicates the flag of the liberal-nationalism in 1848, banned by the Dukes of the German states. The crown of Oak leaves or festoon worn by Germania is the manifestation of heroism. The presence of breastplate with eagle worn by Germania indicates the strength of German Empire. Therefore, all the attributes are present in the portrait of Germania by Philip Veit.