Q Read the Source carefully. Do you agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism? Can you define communalism in a different way?

In 1930, Sir Muhammad Iqbal, as president of the Muslim League, reiterated the importance of separate electorates for the Muslims as an important safeguard for their minority political interests. His statement is supposed to have provided the intellectual justification for the Pakistan demand that came up in subsequent years. This is what he said:

I have no hesitation in declaring that if the principle that the Indian Muslim is entitled to full and free development on the lines of his own culture and tradition in his own Indian home lands is recognized as the basis of a permanent communal settlement, he will be ready to stake his all for the freedom of India. The principle that each group is entitled for free development on its own lines is not inspired by any feeling of narrow communalism. A community which is inspired by feelings of ill-will towards other communities is low and ignoble. I entertain the highest respect for the customs, laws, religions and social institutions of other communities. Nay, it is my duty according to the teachings of the Quran, even to defend their places of worship, if need be. Even though I love the communal group which is the source of life and behavior and which has formed me what I am by giving me its religion, its literature, it’s thought, its culture and thereby its whole past as a living operative factor in my present consciousness. Communalism in its higher aspect, is indispensable to the formation of a harmonious whole in a country like India. The units of Indian society are not territorial as in European countries. The principle of European democracy can-not be applied to India without recognising the fact of communal groups.

The Muslim demand for the separate electorates are contrary to the spirit of true nationalism, because he understands the word ‘nation’ a kind of universal amalgamation in which no communal entity ought to retain its private individuality. Such a state of things, however, does not exist. India is a land of racial and religious variety. Add to this the general economic inferiority of the Muslims, their enormous debt, especially in the Punjab, and their insufficient majorities in some of the provinces, as at present constituted and you will begin to see clearly the meaning of our anxiety to retain separate electorates.

(i) Do you agree with the Iqbal’s idea of communalism? Can you define communalism in a different way?

Ans (i) No, I do not agree with Iqbal’s notion of communalism. He thought that it was the search for a community to develop along its own lines. He felt that religion is the basis on which thought process is based. He felt that religion binds people in one thread. It gives person a unified culture and literature. In his opinion, Hindus and Muslims should live as separate entities in the country. This line of thought support separatism and subsequently led to the partition of the country.

Q Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act ?

  • Ans Rowlatt Act was initiated in 1919. The Imperial Legislative Council passed the act despite the opposition from Indian members.
  • 1 . Under this act, the police could arrest anybody without trial for two years. Under the aegis of Mahatma Gandhi ji, Congress condemned the act as Black Act.
  • 2. The provisions of the act outraged Indians. Meetings were conducted and processions adopted. It was the first time when the Indian jointly opposed the British men.

Q Explain some economic effects of the Non-Cooperation Movement.

  • Ans In the economic sphere, the effects of Non-Cooperation Movement as follows:
  • 1. Foreign goods were boycotted and eliminated from the market.
  • 2. Liquor shope were picketed and foreign cloth was burnt in large bonfires.
  • 3. The import of foreign cloth reduced to half between 1921 and 1922.
  • 4. In large number of places, merchants, peasants and traders refused completely to trade in foreign good or finance foreign trade.

Q Why did Mahatma Gandhi ji feel the need to launch a broad based movement in 1920 ?

Give any three reasons.

  • Ans 1. In 1919, imperial legislative Assembly passed the Rowlatt Act. This Act provide immense power in hand of police todetain any political leader for two year.
  • 2. The Martial Law of 1919, that took place in Jallianwalla Bagh at Amritsar, killed hundreds of innocent people.
  • 3. Khilafat issue: Gandhi saw this as an opportunity to bring muslim under the umbrella of unified national broad based movement in1920.

Q Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement ?

Ans Mahatma Gandhi aimed to call off Non-Cooperation Movement because the movement adopted a violent turn at Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh (U.P.). At this place, people set the police station ablaze in which 22 policemen were burnt alive. Gandhi Ji wanted to cease violence at any cost.

Q What is meant by the idea of Satyagraha?

  • Ans 1. Satyagraha deals with agitation and protest based on truth and non-violence. The concept of Satyagraha was first initiated by Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa in 1907 to oppose Asiatic Registration Law.
  • 2. It entails the idea of passive resistance that consisted defiance of laws, non-payment of taxes and social boycott of government titles and institutions.
  • 3. Initially , in India Mahatma Gandhi launched Satyagraha called ‘Champaran Movement’ in Champaran district of Bihar in 1917 to mobilise the peasants against torturous plantation owners.
  • 4. In the second stage, he organised Satyagraha which was called ‘Kheda Movement’ in Kheda district of Gujarat, supporting the interests of peasants in 1917 and also in Ahmedabad in 1918.

Q How did the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India?

  • Ans 1. The First World War a new economic and political situation that led to the augmentation of defense expenditure.
  • 2. The rise in expenditure was financed by war loans and by increasing taxes. Nevertheless, price hike during the war period (1914-18) led to extreme hardship for the common mass.
  • 3. Villagers were summoned to supply soldiers and the forced recruitment in army created widespread anger. Incidents such as implementation of Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, Martial Law in Punjab, disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, culminating in the initiation of the National Movement.

Q What were the circumstances which led to Jallianwala Bagh incident? Describe in brief the reaction of the people immediately after the incident.

Ans The Rowlatt Act (1919) was passed by the British government despite the unified opposition of the Indian members. This Act empowered the government to subdue political activities and detain any person without trial for two years. Gandhiji wanted non-violent civil disobedience against unjust laws.

Rallies were organised in varied cities. Enraged by the popular revolt, British administration imposed Martial Law in Amritsar. On 13th April, 1919, General Dyer killed innocent people who assembled in Jallianwala Bagh. The news spread like a wildfire. As a matter of fact, hundreds and thousands of people took to the streets and there were strikes, clashes and mass protest.

Q Who launched the Khilafat Movement? Why was the movement launched?

Ans The Khilafat issue was initiated by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. This issue related to restore the power of their khalifa in Ottoman Turkey, which was vanished in World War I.

Later this issue incooperate with Non-cooperation movement in Nagpur Session 1920. Because Gandhiji knew that there should be communal harmony required for nationwide movement.

Q Mention three reasons for which the rich peasant communities took active participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Ans Three reasons for which the affluent peasant communities took part in the Civil Disobedience Movement are enumerated as follows:

  • 1. Being producers of cash crops, they were dismayed by the global economic depression and subsequent falling prices of 1930s.
  • 2. As their cash income abated, they found it difficult to meet the revenue demand of government.
  • 3. There was a popular resentment among the rich peasants and they enthusiastically bolstered the movement.

Q Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.

Ans Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism because:

  • 1. All classes could identify with salt as it way a cheap and essential food item.
  • 2. Tax on salt and the monopoly over its manufacturing was a sign of the oppression of British Rule.
  • 3. It would affect the British economy. Mahatma Gandhi arrived at Dandi on 12th March, 1930 and break the salt law by manufacturing salt from sea water.

Q Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?

Ans There was no consensus of opinions among the political leaders related to the aspect of separate electorate. The reasons are as follows:

  • 1. The Nationalist Congress leaders felt that the policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ would enervate the Nationalist Movement.
  • 2. The Muslim leaders thought that their interest could only be guarded in a Muslim state and not in a Hindu majority state.
  • 3. Dr . B.R. Ambedkar, the leader of the depressed classes, hugely favoured separate electorates. However, Gandhiji felt that separate electorate for Dalits would slow down the pace of their societal integration. Subsequently, Ambedkar accepted the stance of Gandhiji and concluded ‘Poona Pact’.

Q Why did various classes and groups of Indians participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement?

Ans Diverse classes and social groups of Indians took part in the Civil Disobedience Movement spearheaded by Mahatma Gandhi in 1930. Different categories of people joined the movement based on their needs and aspirations.

  • 1. In the rural areas, affluent farmers and peasant communities such as patidars (Gujarat) and Jats in Uttar Pradesh were shocked by the global economic depression. As a matter of fact, they participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement and support the social boycott.
  • 2. The poor peasants demanded that their rent dues should be compensated.
  • 3. The business classes took part in the movement to obstruct the colonial policies that controlled business activities.
  • 4. Some prominent industrialists financially bolstered the movement and boycott the trading practice.
  • 5. The industrial working classes (excluding the workers in Nagpur region) stayed aloof from this movement as big industrialists formed a nexus with the Congress. This was the first time that the large number of women took part in the National Movement.

Q Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.

Ans Bharat Mata is depicted as an ascetic figure. She looks demure, composed, divine and spiritual. She is portrayed as disseminating learning, clothing and food. On the other hand, mala puts an emphasis on her ascetic quality.

At the other end of the spectrum, Germania, the female incarnate of Germany is projected as a heroic figure. She did not stand for any particular woman in real life. She underscored the abstract idea of the nation as a concrete form. She is the embodiment of the strength of the German empire.

Q Write a newspaper report on:

(i) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre.

(ii) The Simon Commission.

  • Ans 1. Jallianwala Bagh is located in Amritsar (Punjab). The Jallianwala Bagh massacre stood as the mark of indignation against the Rowlatt Act. At Jallianwala Bagh, villagers assembled to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. This garden is enclosed on three sides and has only one entrance. In order to alarm the people, General Dyer arrived in the park with troops. Dyer ordered to fire at the crowd and gave no prior warning to them. In the firing, hundreds of people were died and many faced crucial injuries.
  • 2. Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928. The commission was welcomed with black flags and heated slogans like ‘Simon Go Back’. Both Congress and Muslim League vehemently protested against it. The Indian citizens boycotted the Simon Commission as it comprised no Indian member in it. The commission gave no hope of ‘Swaraj’ for the Indians.

Ans The portrait of Germania by Philip Veit represents the emergence of the German nation. The ray of the rising sun indicates the glimmering inception of a new era. The sword signifies the readiness to fight with the neighbouring region. The olive branch around the sword held by Germania signifies the willingness to make peace. The presence of black, red and gold tri-colour indicates the flag of the liberal-nationalism in 1848, banned by the Dukes of the German states. The crown of Oak leaves or festoon worn by Germania is the manifestation of heroism. The presence of breastplate with eagle worn by Germania indicates the strength of German Empire. Therefore, all the attributes are present in the portrait of Germania by Philip Veit.