Q Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the America.
Q Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.
Ans In the pre-modern world, the global transfer of disease led to the colonisation of the America because the native of the New World were susceptible to diseases brought about by the colonisers. The Europeans were moderately immune to small pox.
The natives of the New World had no protection against serious diseases. These germs decimated the whole native communities and paved the way for foreign conquests. In principle, weapons and soldiers could easily be destroyed but diseases could not be eliminated easily.
Q Write a short note on Sir Morton Stanley.
Ans Sir Henry Morton Stanley was an eminent journalist and explorer. He was commissioned by the New York Herald to find Livingston, a missionary, who had been living in Africa for several years. Like other European and American explorers of the time, he armed, mobilized local hunters, warriors and labourers to help him, fought with local tribes, he also investigated African topography, and mapped different regions. These explorations facilitated the conquest of Africa.
Q Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.
Q What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement ?
Ans The Bretton Woods Agreement came into vogue in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA. The Bretton Woods System led to the development of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank to maintain global economic stability and full employment in the industrial world. These world-class financial and developed organisations also handled crucial problems related to external surpluses and deficits of member nations and financed post-war reconstructions.
Q What was the impact of colonisation on various colonies?
Q Explain three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.
Q What were the results of ‘shrinking’ of the world from sixteenth century onwards?
Q Discuss the causes and impact of indentured labour migration from India.
Q What do you mean by the terms ‘mass production’ and ‘mass consumption’?
Ans One salient feature of the dynamic US economy of the 1920s was mass production. A well known pioneer of mass production was the car manufacturer Henry Ford. He adopted the assembly line production in his new car plant in Detroit. The assembly line production compelled workers to repeat a single task continuously and mechanically— such as incorporating a particular part into the car at a place dictated by conveyor belt. This was the way of augmenting the output per worker by accelerating the pace of work.
Standing in front of a conveyor belt, no worker would afford to delay the motions, take a break, or even strike because of friendly conversation with workmate. Therefore, Henry Ford’s cars succeeded the assembly line at three minutes interval, a speed much faster than that achieved by previous methods. The T-Model Ford was the world’s first mass produced car. As a matter of fact, mass production lessened the cost of goods and this culminated in the process of mass consumption.
Q Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?
Ans The G-77 countries’ represented the group of 77 countries that demanded a new economic international order (NEIO). The New Economic International Order (NIEO) is a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, without being victimised by the agents of neo-colonialism, a new variant of colonialism in trade. Neo-colonialism was practiced by the former colonial powers.
The G-77 can be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins (the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank). These two institutions were designed to accomplish the financial needs of industrial and developed countries. They did nothing for the economic growth of former colonies and developing nations.
Q Explain what we mean when we say that the world ‘shrank’ in the 1500s.
Ans The term ‘shrank’ means augmented communication among the people of the various continents of the world. Before 1500s, the cultural or economic links barely existed. After 1500s, the commercial swap of ideas increased in the continents of the world that stretched from America to Asia.
Q The British government’s decision was to abolish the Corn Laws. Substantiate the statement.
Ans The British government decided to abolish the Corn Laws. The Corn Laws resulted in the influx of cheaper and subsidised agricultural crops from Australia and America. Many Englishmen denounced their profession and migrated to towns and cities. This indirectly led to the development of global agriculture and massive urbanisation. These two things were the essential requirements of industrial growth.
Q Rinderpest arrived in Africa. Substantiate the statement.
Ans The emergence of Rinderpest in Africa led to the loss of livelihood of several Africans. The colonisers exploited the situation and used it to their advantage. The colonising nations conquered and suppressed Africa by wielding control over scarce cattle resources and forced the native Africans into the labour market.
Q Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.
Ans Dear mother,
I have been working in Trinidad (Caribbean) as an indentured worker for several months. My life is afflicted with sorrows and hardship. You will be shocked to hear that the contractor concealed correct information from us regarding place of work, mode of travel, living and working conditions. At the same time, we are not given sufficient legal rights. The contractors abuse us by using harsh and vituperative language at the worksite. They treat us like a ragamuffin coolie and we constitute a minority in the cocoa plantations in Trinidad.
Mother , I am leading a difficult life in this region. If I remain absent from work and ‘then they send me to jail.’ There is a huge work load at the plantation site, which I have to finish in one day. I am enslaved by the contractor and my plight is deplorable.
You take my regards and convey the same to my grandparents.
Q The men of the Working Age in Europe died because of the World War. Substantiate the statement.
Ans Most of the victims of world war hailed from the younger generations of working men. As a matter of fact, the level of workforce reduced in Europe, which resulted in the decline of the household income. The role of women was renewed and this increased the demand for the equality of status. It gave a new impetus to the feminist movement. Women started working alongside men as far as farming activities were concerned. The activities of women and damsels were independent of the superior controls.
Q “Grow more jute, brothers, with the hope of greater cash. Costs and debts of jute will make your hopes get dashed. When you have spent all your money and got the crop off the ground, traders, sitting at home, will pay only ₹ 5 a mound.” Who profits from jute cultivation according to the jute growers’ lament? Discuss.
Ans According to the jute growers, the in-house traders will be benefitted by the profits of the jute cultivation. The characteristics of the statement can be discussed as: