Q Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the America.

  • Ans Examples of different sorts of global exchanges that took place before the seventeenth century are stated below:
  • 1. Textiles, spices and Chinese pottery were exchange by China, India and Southeast Asia in lieu for gold, silver and other precious things from Europe.
  • 2. Gold and foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, tomatoes and chillies were first exported from the America to Europe.

Q Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.

Ans In the pre-modern world, the global transfer of disease led to the colonisation of the America because the native of the New World were susceptible to diseases brought about by the colonisers. The Europeans were moderately immune to small pox.

The natives of the New World had no protection against serious diseases. These germs decimated the whole native communities and paved the way for foreign conquests. In principle, weapons and soldiers could easily be destroyed but diseases could not be eliminated easily.

Q Write a short note on Sir Morton Stanley.

Ans Sir Henry Morton Stanley was an eminent journalist and explorer. He was commissioned by the New York Herald to find Livingston, a missionary, who had been living in Africa for several years. Like other European and American explorers of the time, he armed, mobilized local hunters, warriors and labourers to help him, fought with local tribes, he also investigated African topography, and mapped different regions. These explorations facilitated the conquest of Africa.

Q Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.

  • Ans Two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability are stated below:
  • 1 . Faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships facilitated the rapid movement of food from production units to distant markets.
  • 2. Refrigerated ships facilitated the transport of perishable foods like meat, butter and eggs to far away areas.

Q What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement ?

Ans The Bretton Woods Agreement came into vogue in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA. The Bretton Woods System led to the development of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank to maintain global economic stability and full employment in the industrial world. These world-class financial and developed organisations also handled crucial problems related to external surpluses and deficits of member nations and financed post-war reconstructions.

Q What was the impact of colonisation on various colonies?

  • Ans The effects of colonisation on various colonies are enumerated as follows:
  • 1. Trade flourished and markets expanded in the late-nineteenth century. At the same time, colonisation also led to loss of freedom and livelihoods in the colonies.
  • 2. European conquests led to economic, social and ecological changes which resulted in the positioning of the colonised societies within the ambit of the world economy.
  • 3. Rival European powers in Africa drew up the borders demarcating their respective territories, which is known as paper partition.
  • 4. Britain and France wielded control over vast stretches of land in the overseas territories in the late-nineteenth century. Belgium and Germany emerged as new colonial powers.
  • 5 . The US also became a colonial power in the late 1890s by exercising control over some colonies that were previously occupied by Spain.

Q Explain three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.

  • Ans Three type of movement or flow in international trade are :
  • 1. Trade in goods like cloth and wheat.
  • 2. Migration of people in search of employment.
  • 3. Short-term and long-term investment over long distance.
  • Example of each type of flow with respect to India and Indian.
  • 1. Trade in goods: British-Indian Government created better infrastructure to enhance export from India such as irrigation canal. Irrigation canals used to transform semi desert area into fertile lands. Which increase the production of wheat and cotton for export.
  • 2. Migration of people in search of employment: People migrate because absence of employment and unable to create revenue from the area where they surrounded. In 19th century hundred of thousands of Indian labours migrated to work on plantation, in mines, in construction of road and railway.
  • 3. Short-term and long-term investment over long distance:
  • (a) Traders and moneylender of India also followed pattern of European coloniers such as in Africa and also went to beyond the European colonier to invest such as Hyderabadi sindhi.
  • (b) Nattukottai chettiars and shikuripuri shroff where those banker and trader who finance export of agriculture in South Asia and Central Asia.

Q What were the results of ‘shrinking’ of the world from sixteenth century onwards?

  • Ans The ‘shrinking’ of the world from sixteenth century onwards, culminated in many developments. The results are as follows:
  • 1. The Americas (North, South America and Caribbean islands) came into the purview of public consciousness.
  • 2. The supreme European powers, ar med with advanced weapons, colonised the vast swathes of the American landmass.
  • 3. The European sailors, mainly Spanish and Portuguese, invented sea trade routes through the Indian Ocean. This led to expansion and redirecting of trade to Europe.
  • 4. China, ostensibly cut-off from the whole world, did not forge any commercial contacts with the European powers. As a matter of fact, the center of gravity got drifted from China towards Europe.
  • 5. The gold and silver mines of South American countries, like Peru, Mexico and El Dorado got exposed to the European powers.
  • 6. Smallpox, a pernicious disease, was transmitted into the American continents through European soldiers.

Q Discuss the causes and impact of indentured labour migration from India.

  • Ans 1. The migration of indentured labourers from India characterised two-sided nature of the nineteenth century world. On one side, it demonstrated the world of faster economic growth, higher incomes and technological advancement for one section of the society. On the other hand, the lower segments of the society were afflicted with poverty, hardship and brutal coercion. The causes of indentured labour migration from India are as follows:
  • (a) In the nineteenth centur y, hundreds and thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers immigrated to other parts of the world and worked on plantations, mines, roads and railways construction projects. In India, these indentured workers were hired under contract, which promised them safe passage to India after they had worked five years on the plantation of the employer.
  • (b) Most Indian indentured workers hailed from the present-day regions of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Central India and the dry districts of Tamil Nadu. In the mid-nineteenth century, these regions experienced many changes, such as cottage industries declined, increase in land rents, lands were cleared for mines and plantations, etc. The lower segments of the society were deeply affected by these changes and many of them turned insolvent. Therefore, they were compelled to migrate to other parts of the world in search for work. The main destination of indentured migrants was the Caribbean islands. Mauritius and Fiji indentured workers were also employed by the owners of tea plantations in Assam.
  • 2. The consequences of migration of indentured labourers from India are as follows:
  • (a) Many migrants, in distress, took up work and went far afield from their home towns. They wanted to escape poverty, filth and exploitation in their home towns. Subsequently, they understood the graveness of their living and working conditions in the foreign lands. They did not even have legal rights.
  • (b) The indentured work ers discovered their own ways of survival. Many of them escaped into wilderness, though if caught, they faced severe punishment. Many indentured workers developed new variants of individual and collective self-expression, amalgamating different cultures.

Q What do you mean by the terms ‘mass production’ and ‘mass consumption’?

Ans One salient feature of the dynamic US economy of the 1920s was mass production. A well known pioneer of mass production was the car manufacturer Henry Ford. He adopted the assembly line production in his new car plant in Detroit. The assembly line production compelled workers to repeat a single task continuously and mechanically— such as incorporating a particular part into the car at a place dictated by conveyor belt. This was the way of augmenting the output per worker by accelerating the pace of work.

Standing in front of a conveyor belt, no worker would afford to delay the motions, take a break, or even strike because of friendly conversation with workmate. Therefore, Henry Ford’s cars succeeded the assembly line at three minutes interval, a speed much faster than that achieved by previous methods. The T-Model Ford was the world’s first mass produced car. As a matter of fact, mass production lessened the cost of goods and this culminated in the process of mass consumption.

Q Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?

Ans The G-77 countries’ represented the group of 77 countries that demanded a new economic international order (NEIO). The New Economic International Order (NIEO) is a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, without being victimised by the agents of neo-colonialism, a new variant of colonialism in trade. Neo-colonialism was practiced by the former colonial powers.

The G-77 can be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins (the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank). These two institutions were designed to accomplish the financial needs of industrial and developed countries. They did nothing for the economic growth of former colonies and developing nations.

Q Explain what we mean when we say that the world ‘shrank’ in the 1500s.

Ans The term ‘shrank’ means augmented communication among the people of the various continents of the world. Before 1500s, the cultural or economic links barely existed. After 1500s, the commercial swap of ideas increased in the continents of the world that stretched from America to Asia.

Q The British government’s decision was to abolish the Corn Laws. Substantiate the statement.

Ans The British government decided to abolish the Corn Laws. The Corn Laws resulted in the influx of cheaper and subsidised agricultural crops from Australia and America. Many Englishmen denounced their profession and migrated to towns and cities. This indirectly led to the development of global agriculture and massive urbanisation. These two things were the essential requirements of industrial growth.

Q Rinderpest arrived in Africa. Substantiate the statement.

Ans The emergence of Rinderpest in Africa led to the loss of livelihood of several Africans. The colonisers exploited the situation and used it to their advantage. The colonising nations conquered and suppressed Africa by wielding control over scarce cattle resources and forced the native Africans into the labour market.

Q Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.

Ans Dear mother,

I have been working in Trinidad (Caribbean) as an indentured worker for several months. My life is afflicted with sorrows and hardship. You will be shocked to hear that the contractor concealed correct information from us regarding place of work, mode of travel, living and working conditions. At the same time, we are not given sufficient legal rights. The contractors abuse us by using harsh and vituperative language at the worksite. They treat us like a ragamuffin coolie and we constitute a minority in the cocoa plantations in Trinidad.

Mother , I am leading a difficult life in this region. If I remain absent from work and ‘then they send me to jail.’ There is a huge work load at the plantation site, which I have to finish in one day. I am enslaved by the contractor and my plight is deplorable.

You take my regards and convey the same to my grandparents.

With love,


Q The men of the Working Age in Europe died because of the World War. Substantiate the statement.

Ans Most of the victims of world war hailed from the younger generations of working men. As a matter of fact, the level of workforce reduced in Europe, which resulted in the decline of the household income. The role of women was renewed and this increased the demand for the equality of status. It gave a new impetus to the feminist movement. Women started working alongside men as far as farming activities were concerned. The activities of women and damsels were independent of the superior controls.

Q “Grow more jute, brothers, with the hope of greater cash. Costs and debts of jute will make your hopes get dashed. When you have spent all your money and got the crop off the ground, traders, sitting at home, will pay only ₹ 5 a mound.” Who profits from jute cultivation according to the jute growers’ lament? Discuss.

Ans According to the jute growers, the in-house traders will be benefitted by the profits of the jute cultivation. The characteristics of the statement can be discussed as:

  • 1. Hardship of jute growers: The jute growers work mercilessly in the field. They worked several hours in the field and yet remained insolvent.
  • 2. Investment made by jute growers: The jute growers invested heavily in the jute cultivation, in terms of physical labour and capital payment.
  • 3. Profit of traders: After getting the crop off the ground, the in-house traders paid meager amount to the jute growers. Therefore, the in-house traders profited from the jute cultivation.