Q Give reasons for the statement: ‘Woodblock print only came to Europe after 1295’.
Ans In the aftermath of 1295, the Italian explorer Marco Polo returned from his long stay in China. At the same time, he brought back the knowledge of Woodblock printing to Europe. In this way, the concept of Woodblock printing became popular in Europe.
Q Give reasons for the statement: “The Roman Catholic Church began keeping an Index of Prohibited Books from the mid-sixteenth century.”
Ans From the mid-sixteenth century onwards, the Roman Catholic Church was confronted with severe problems. Some people started to write books that construed the god and the creation of the almighty in their own ways. Consequently, the Roman Catholic Church clamped down on the public demonstrations. The Church confiscated those spurious books and attacked people who disseminated heretical ideas. At the same time, the Church preserved the record of such banned books. It was called the Index of Prohibited Books.
Q Write a note on Erasmus’s idea of a printed book.
Ans Erasmus was a Latin scholar and a Catholic reformer. He strongly objected to the printing of books. To his opinion, most printed books were slanderous, irreligious and provoking. With the subsequent expansion of printing, ideas of enlightened thinkers attracted the mass and they started to see the world through the lens of logic. These printed books were spreading heretical ideas that opposed the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. According to Erasmus, such printed books debased the values of hand-written manuscripts.
Q Write briefly on the Vernacular Press Act.
Ans Proposed by the Viceroy of India, Lord Lytton (1876-80), the Vernacular Press Act was passed in 1878. It was modeled on the Irish Press Laws. Due to the prevalence of this Act, the government wielded control over the vernacular press. The government possessed the right to censor reports and editorials of the vernacular press. If report was found to be seditious, the newspaper was warned. However, if the newspaper shunned the warning and continued the activity, then the press would be confiscated.
Q Give reasons for the statement: ‘Gandhi said the fight for Swaraj is a fight for liberty of speech, liberty of the press, and freedom of association’.
Ans According to Mahatma Gandhi, liberty of speech, liberty of the press and freedom of association were the potential vehicles of expressing and comprehending the public opinion. Therefore, he stated confidently that the fight for Swaraj was the battle for liberty of speech, liberty of the press and freedom of association.
Q Why did some people in eighteenth century Europe think that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism?
Ans In 18th century, many people felt that print culture would definitely bring enlightenment and cease despotism. The reasons are enumerated as follows:
Q Explain the following:
Q Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.
Ans In this segment, I intend to write an article for an encyclopedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Britain had successfully regulated and dominated the trade in cotton (raw material), cotton fabrics of coarser or line quality. Britain had set up markets throughout the colonies for selling the Manchester and Liverpool made cotton textiles that were relatively cheaper than hand-made cotton textile of colonised countries. By using an imperialist tool, Britain had found ways to garner huge amount of profit from the trade in cotton. Due to an ardent process of colonisation. Indian weavers became indebted to the East India Company. At the same time, the Gomasthas compounded the problems of Indian weavers. With the advent of Industrialisation in England, the cotton textiles mills and factories permeated the country. Therefore, England carved a unique space in the global economic history for more than five centuries due to the presence of cotton trade.
Q Write True or False against each statement.