NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Part II Chapter 8 Regional Aspirations
95. Match the following:
|A. Nature of Regional aspirations.||B. States|
|(a) Socio-religious identify leading to statehood||(i) Nagaland/ Mizoram|
|(b) Linguistic identity and tensions with Centre||(ii) Jharkhand/ Chattisgarh|
|(c) Regional imbalance leading to demand for Statehood.||(iii) Punjab|
|(d) Secessionist demands on account of tribal identity||(iv) Tamil Nadu.|
|A. Nature of Regional aspirations.||B. States|
|(a) Socio-religious identify leading to statehood||(iii) Punjab|
|(b) Linguistic identity and tensions with Centre||(iv) Tamil Nadu.|
|(c) Regional imbalance leading to demand for Statehood.||(ii) Jharkhand/ Chattisgarh|
|(d) Secessionist demands on account of tribal identity||(i) Nagaland/ Mizoram|
96. Regional aspirations of the people of North-East get expressed in different ways. These include movements against outsiders, movement for
greater autonomy and movement for separate national existence. On the map of the North- East, using different shades for these three, show the States where these expressions are prominently found.
Ans. Assam, Mizoram and Tripura
97. What were the main provisions of the Punjab accord? In what way can they be the basis for further tensions between Punjab and its neighbouring States?
Ans. Punjab Accord was an agreement signed between the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Harchand Singh Longowal, the then President of Akali Dal in July 1985 to be known as ‘ Rajiv Gandhi Longowal Accord’ also create normalcy in Punjab.
The main provisions of the Punjab accord were:
- Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab.
- To appoint a separate commission to resolve the border dispute between Punjab and Haryana.
- To set up a tribunal settle down the sharing of Ravi-Beas river water among Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
- To provide an agreement for compensation to and better treatment of those affected by the militancy in Punjab.
- To withdraw the Armed Forces Special powers Act in Punjab.
But, peace could not be established easily in Punjab a resulted as follows:
- Militancy and counter insurgency violence led to excesses by the police and violations of human rights.
- Politically, it led to the fragmentation of the Akali Dal.
- President’s rule was imposed and the normal electoral process was suspended.
- Hence, the Political process could not be restored in the atmosphere. Even during elections in 1992, only 24 per cent of the electors tuned out to vote. Consequently
above mentioned added to the tension between Punjab and its neighbouring states.
98. Why did the Anandpur Sahib Resolution become controversial?
Ans. Anandpur Sahib Resolution was a political statement made by Akalis in the wake of their demand for political autonomy. In 1973, the Akalis passed a resolution that, in a way, has been regarded as the main policy and programme of the Akali Dal.
The resolution stated the following:
- The Anandpur Sahib Resolution asserted regional autonomy and wanted to redefine Centre-state relationship in the country.
- The resolution also spoke of the aspirations of the Sikh qaum (community or nation) and declared its goal as attaining the bolbala (dominance or hegemony) of the Sikhs.
- The Resolution was a plea for strengthening federalism.
The resolution became highly controversial because of the following reasons:
- The resolution created a big stir in 1980s after the Akali government had been dismissed in 1980, thereafter launching an agitation.
- The Akalis questioned the water-sharing arrangement between Punjab and Haryana.
- They began to assert for independent Sikh identity.
- The Akali Dal and a religious leader, Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, joined to launch the Dharam Yudh Morcha in 1982 in order to implement the Anandpur Sahib Resolution.
- The extreme elements made the demand for a separate Sikh nation of Khalistan.
- The document was looked by the ruling congress that viewed it as secessionist document and regarded Akalis as a separatist.
- It later resulted in the rise of Sikh militancy that turned Golden temple into its headquarters under the leadership of Bindrawala making more pressing demand for a separate Sikh state, resulting in Operation Blue star.
99. Explain the internal divisions of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and describe how these lead to multiple regional aspirations in that State.
Ans. The internal divisions of the State of Jammu and Kashmir comprise three social and political regions. Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh:
- Kashmir region is the Kashmir valley consisting of Kashmiri speaking and mostly Muslim with a small Kashmiri speaking Hindu minority.
- Jammu region consists of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs and speakers of various languages, in the areas of foothills and plains.
- Ladakh region is equally divided between Buddhists and Muslims and maintains a little population area.
These internal divisions led to multiple regional aspirations .Internally, there is a dispute about the status of Kashmir within the Indian union. Kashmir was given a special status by Article 370 in our Constitution giving greater autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir compared to the other States of India.
- One strand of separatist to demand a separate Kashmiri nation independent of India and Pakistan.
- Some other groups want Kashmir to be merged with Pakistan.
- Third strand wants a greater autonomy for people of state within Indian Union.
- The demand for intra-state autonomy is as strong as the demand for the state autonomy.
- It is felt that democracy which is practised in the rest of India has not been similarly institutionalised in the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
100. What are the various positions on the issue of regional autonomy for Kashmir? Which of these do you think are justifiable? Give reasons
for your answer.
Ans. The various positions on the issue of regional autonomy for Kashmir are as given below :
- There is a section of people outside of J & K that believes that the special status of the State conferred by Article 370 does not allow full integration of the State with India. This section feels that Article 370 should, therefore, be revoked and J & K should be like any other State in India.
- The second section, mostly Kashmir is believe that the autonomy conferred by Article 370 is not enough.
- Another section of Kashmiris has put forward following three grievances :
(a) The promise that Accession would be referred to the people of the State after the situation created by the tribal invasion was normalised has not been fulfilled. They have generated the demand for a ‘plebiscite’.
(b) It is argued that the federal status guaranteed by Article 370 has been eroded in practice. They want restoration of autonomy or ‘Greater State Autonomy’.
(c) The third grievance is that democracy which is practiced in the rest of India has not been similarly institutionalised in the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
There is a prevalent belief that 370 does not allow full integration of the State with India, it should be revoked. Kashmir is an integral part of India and many free and fair elections have been conducted in the State. Thus, it should be like any other State in India. People from all over India should be allowed to settle there and have right to property.
101. The Assam movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness. Explain.
Ans. The Assam movement was a combination of cultural and economic backwardness because:
- The Assam Movement from 1979 to 1985 is the best example of movements against ‘outsiders’.
- The movement was against illegal migrations, against domination of Bengalis and other outsiders, and against faulty voters’ register that included the names of
lakhs of immigrants.
- It was against outsiders to maintain cultural integration of Assam.
- There were widespread poverty and unemployment in Assam, despite the existence of natural resources like oil, tea and coal.
- It was felt that these were drained out of the State without any equivalent benefit to the people.
- The agitation followed many novel methods and mobilised all sections of Assamese people, drawing support across the State.
102. All regional movements need not lead to separatist demands. Explain by giving examples from this chapter.
Ans. India consists of a large number of regions with diverse social and cultural compositions and different levels development. These are the reasons that it has been facing regional movements since it became independent.
- Even after the formation of a particular state, a region or more within a state start regional movements for autonomy, independence or even secession from the union of India.
- In India, territory and community are linked together. A region is known by the community, which lives in it.
- People having distinct socio-cultural identity seek a separate state in order to preserve, protect and promote their identity.
- Most of the regional movements emphasise autonomy especially in the socio-cultural realm.
- But in separatist movements, like in most of the states like in the northeast region, anti-government militants retain significant value and often indulge in strikes against government interests.
- With small arms being easily available in the region from the neighbouring countries, even smaller militant groups can challenge state authority .
- In India regional movements have taken in different parts of the country on one or the other basis – territorial, ethnicity or economic backwardness .
Some of them had become separatist militant insurgency. The response of the state to regional movements has not been uniform. Depending on the situation the state has been indifferent, accommodative or coercive to such movements:
- Its examples are in the eighties, military erupted in Punjab, problems persisted in the North-East, students agitated in Assam and Kashmir valley was on the boil.
- The government of India settled down some negotiations with these regional aspirations to reduce tensions in many regions.
- Mizoram is an example of a political settlement to resolve the problem of separation effectively.
103. Regional demands from different parts of India exemplify the principle of unity with diversity. Do you agree? Give reasons.
Ans . It is very true to say that the regional demands from different parts of India exemplify the principle of unity and diversity. The reasons in support of these statements are as given below :
- In India, different regions and linguistic groups have the right to retain their own culture.
- India has adopted a democratic approach to the question of diversity and, therefore, allows the political expression of regional aspirations.
- Regional issues and problems receive adequate attention and accommodation in the policy making process.
- Indian approach does not see regionalism and cultural diversity as anti national.
- During the period since independence regional aspirations from demands of statehood and economic development to autonomy and separation have been
raised. But the democratic politics has accommodated the demands of different sections of the society. Regional aspirations are very much a part of democratic politics.
- Jammu and Kashmir is one of the living examples of plural society and politics. In spite of diversities and conflicts, the plural and secular culture of the state has remained largely intact. Similarly in Punjab regional identities continue to be important for the people, but politics has been on secular lines.
104. Read the passage and answer the questions below:
One of Hazarika’s songs……..dwells on the unity theme; the seven states of north-eastern India become seven sisters born of the same mother………. “Meghalaya went own way …., Arunachal too separated and Mizoram appeared in Assam’s gateway as a groom to marry another daughter.’ The song ends with a determination
to keep the unity of the Assamese with other smaller nationalities that are left in the presentday Assam. The Karbis and the Missing brothers and sisters are our dear ones.” —Sanjib Baruah
- Which unity is the poet talking about?
- Why were some States of North- East created separately out of the erstwhile State of Assam?
- Do you think that the same theme of unity could apply to all the regions of India? Why?
- The poet is talking about the Unity of Assam.
- Some states of North East created separately out of the erstwhile state of Assam because these states face that Assamese government was imposing the Assamese language on them. Hence, regional aspirations began.
- Yes, the same theme of unity could apply to all regions of India, because the Indian government deals with all these regional aspirations to respect and accommodate
regional diversities. Unity in Diversity is the important feature of India.