NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 - Contemporary Centres Of Power
95. Arrange the following in chronological order.
96. The ‘ASEAN Way’:
97. Which of the following nations adopted an ‘open door’ policy?
98. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The border conflict between China and India in 1962 was principally over________and _________region.
Ans. Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin
(b) ARF was established in the year __________.
(c) China entered into bilateral relations with __________ (a major country) in 1972.
Ans. United States
(d) ____________ Plan influenced the establishment of the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation in 1948.
Ans. Marshall Plan
(e) ___________ is the organisation of ASEAN that deals with security.
Ans. Asian Regional Forum
99. What are the objectives of establishing regional organisations?
Ans. The regional organisations are established with the following objectives:
- To make regional development at par the fast-growing global economy.
- To accelerate economic growth through the social progress and cultural development.
- To promote regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principles of United Nations Charter.
100. How does the geographical proximity influence the formation of regional organisations?
Ans. The geographical proximity influences the formation of regional organisations because:
- It is influenced by almost some historical enmities and weaknesses.
- Sometimes the similar interests come together.
- Even fruitful areas for regional economy are also the result of geographical proximity.
101. What Are the Components of the Asean Vision 2020?
Ans. The Asean Vision 2020 (also called the Honoi plan of action) came out in 1997. Its components are:
- An outward looking role of the ASEAN in the international community.
- Negotiation over conflicts in the region. It mediated the end of the Cambodian conflict and the East Timor Crisis.
- Discussion of cooperation among East Asian Nations.
102. Name the pillars aid objectives of ASEAN community.
Ans. The ASEAN community established the following three pillars:
- The ASEAN Security Community
- The ASEAN Economic Community
- The ASEAN Socio-cultural Community.
The objectives of ASEAN community are as follows:
- Territorial disputes should not escalate into armed confrontations.
- To accelerate economic growth through social progress and cultural development.
- To promote regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principles of the United Nations Charter.
- To establish dispute settlement mechanism to resolve economic disputes.
- To create Free Trade Areas for investments, labour and services.
103. In what ways does the present Chinese economy differ from its command economy?
Ans. The present Chinese economy has adopted the ‘open-door policy to generate higher productivity by investments of capital and technology. It differed from its command economy in the following manner:
- It broke the stagnancy of the command economy.
- Command economy lagged behind industrial production but the Chinese economy recovered it by the privatisation of agriculture and industry.
- The present Chinese economy established new trading laws and created Special Economic Zones leading to a higher rise in foreign trade. During Command economy the international trade was minimal and per capita income was very low.
104. How did the European countries resolve their Post Second World War problem? Briefly outline the attempts that led to the formation of the European Union.
Ans. After the end of Second World War in 1945, the European States confronted the ruin of their economies and the destruction of assumptions and structures on which Europe had been founded. European countries resolved their Post
Second World War problems in the following manner:
- Under the ‘Marshall Plan’ the USA provided financial help to revive European economy.
- The US also created a new collective security structure under NATO.
- Under the ‘Marshall Plan’ the organisation for European Economic Cooperation was established in 1948 to extend cooperation on trade and economic issues among the Western European States.
- European Union was founded in 1992 for a common foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice and home affairs and creation of a single currency. It evolved from an economic union to political one over time.
The following attempts led to the formation of European Union:
- The Council of Europe was established in 1949 for political cooperation.
- The process of economic integration of European Capitalist countries led to the formation of European Economic Community in 1957.
- The above-mentioned processes acquired a political dimension with the creation of European Parliament.
- The collapse of Soviet bloc put Europe on a fast track and resulted in the establishment of European Union in 1992.
105. What makes the European Union a highly influential regional organisation?
Ans. As a supernational organisation, the European Union bears economic, political diplomacy and military influence as a regional organisation in the following manner:
- Economic Influence:
(а) Three times larger share in world trade than the US.
(b) Its currency Euro, can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar.
(c) The EU functions as an important bloc in the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
- Political and Diplomatic Influences:
(a) Two members of the EU, Britain and France hold permanent seats in the Security Council to influence the UN policies.
(b) The EU also includes various non-permanent members of the UNSC.
(c) The European Union play an influential role in diplomacy and negotiations except the military force i.e., the EU’s dialogue with China on human rights and environmental degradation is remarkable.
- Military Influence:
(a) The EU’s combined armed forces are second largest in the world.
(b) Its total expenditure on military is second to the US.
(c) Its two important members— Britain and France also experience nuclear ascends of 550 nuclear warheads.
(d) The EU is world’s second most important source of space and communications technology.
106. The emerging economies of China and India have great potential to challenge the unipolar world. Do you agree with the statement? Substantiate your arguments.
Ans. The Indo-China relations experience strategically organised as rising economic powers in global politics and to play a major role in Asian economy after the end of Cold War. It can be proved on the following grounds:
- The new economic policies of India and China have broken their economy from stagnancy.
- The creation of special economic zones led to a phenomenal rise in foreign trade.
- China has become the most important destination for foreign direct investment anywhere in the world. Hence, it has large reserves for foreign exchange to allow it to make big investment in other countries.
- At the global level also, India and China have adopted similar policies in World Trade Organisation to deepen integration with the world economy to challenge unipolar world.
107. The peace and prosperity of countries lay in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organisations. Justify this statement.
Ans. This statement represents the ASEAN Regional Forum and the European Union, where ASEAN Regional Forum is based on the notion not to escalate territorial disputes into armed confrontation:
- The ASEAN is rapidly growing as a regional organisation with the Vision 2020 including an outward looking role in international community and to encourage negotiations over conflicts in the region.
- ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) maintains coordination of security and foreign policy.
- The EU has also been funded on the ground of common foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice and home affairs.
- The European Union has also extended cooperation while acquiring new members especially from Soviet bloc.
108. Identify the contentious issues between China and India. How could these be resolved for greater cooperation? Give your suggestions.
Ans. The relations with China experience friendly gestures from India as India signed popular ‘Panchsheel’ to develop Indo-China relations in 1954 and advocated China’s membership to the United Nations. Still, after 1957, various contentious issues arose in Indo-China relations:
- In 1962, military conflict over a border dispute of Machoman Line resulted on unwarranted claim by China which now lie in Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin region of Ladakh.
- Differences arose from Chinese takeover of Tibet in 1950 which was protested by India against China.
- After Panchsheel, attack by China on India in 1962, to occupy larger territories of India, created humiliation.
- China’s assistance to Pakistan’s nuclear programme also created differences.
- China’s military relations with Bangladesh and Myanmar were viewed as hostile to Indian interests.
All the above-mentioned differences/ disputes could be resolved for greater cooperation-
- Both the countries should make some more efforts to revive harmonious attitude between themselves.
- Both the countries should move hand-inhand to fight against terrorism, nuclear race and economic disparities.
- Both the countries should develop understanding and respect.
- Hence, both of them have signed agreements on cultural exchange and cooperation in science and technology.
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