NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 6 - The Crisis Of Democratic Order
85. State whether the following statements regarding the Emergency are correct or incorrect.
86. Find the odd one out in the context of proclamation of Emergency,
87. Match the following:
|(a) Total Revolution||(i) Indira Gandhi|
|(b) Garibi hatao||(ii) Jayaprakash Narayan|
|(c) Students’ Protest||(iii) Bihar Movement|
|(d) Railway Strike||(iv) George Fernandes|
Ans. (a)-(iii), (b)-(i), (c)-(ii), (d)-(iv)
88. What were the reasons which led to the midterm elections in 1980?
Ans. The reasons that led to mid-term elections are:
- The Janata Party was successful in forming the government in 1977. After election, there was stiff competition among three leaders for the post of prime minister i.e. Morarji Desia, Charan Singh, Jagjivan became prime minister.
- Some of the leaders of the party was not convinced by the policies of Morarji Desai. This led to felling down of the Janata government. Later Chaudhary Charan Singh became the Prime Minister with the support of the Congress.
- However later the Congress took their support back which led to the fall of the Chaudhary Charan Singh’s government. This led to the mid-term elections in 1980.
89. The Shah Commission was appointed in 1977 by the Janata Party Government. Why was it appointed and what were its findings?
Ans. The Shah Commission was appointed to make an investigation of the events that took place during the period of emergency. It was also given the task to evaluate the decisions made by Indira Gandhi during the emergency and their legal validity.
Some of the findings of the report are:
- It find out that many violation of laws was occurred during emergency.
- Lakhs of people were detained under the preventive detention law.
- The censorship on the press was imposed that do not have a proper legal provision.
90. What reasons did the Government give for declaring a National Emergency in 1975?
Ans. Some of the reasons given by the government are:
- There was a situation of internal disturbance in the country which undermined the security of the state.
- The election of Indira Gandhi was declared void by the Allahabad High Court in the Raj Narain case.
- The government imposed emergency by Presidential order issue by President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed. They said that this period will be used for restoration of law and order and welfare of the poor people.
91. The 1977 elections for the first time saw the Opposition coming into power at the Centre. What would you consider as the reasons for this development?
- Since 1967 elections the oppositions parties had been coming nearer to each other. That election had brought the idea of coalitions in Indian politics.
- Before emergency the movement led by Jayaprakash Narayan had received support from the non-Congress opposition parties like the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, the Congress (O), The Bharatiya Lok Dal and others.
- After the verdict of Allahabad High Court declared Indira Gandhi’s election invalid opposition parties organised a massive demonstration on 25 June, 1975 and asked for resignation of Indira Gandhi. On the night of 25 June, 1975 Emergency was proclaimed.
- Arrest, censorship, torture, custodial deaths during emergency and other actions of the government directly affected the political parties and the ordinary people.
- All these factors brought the opposition together and formed a new party known as the Janata Party under the leadership of Jayaprakash Narayan. The new party made the election into a refrendum on the Emergency.
- The public opinion was against the Congress. The formation of the Janata Party ensured that non-Congress votes would not be divided. All these factors led to the victory of the Janata Party and coming of opposition into power at the Centre.
92. Discuss the effects of Emergency on the following aspects of our polity:
(i) Effects on civil liberties for citizens.
Ans. Civil Liberties of the people were restricted as many of their fundamental rights were suspended. There was restrictions on assembly, associations and other things.
(ii) Impact on relationship between the Executive and Judiciary.
Ans. The executive was all powerful during this period. The judiciary could not question the decisions of the executive during this period.
(iii) Functioning of Mass Media.
Ans. There was high level of censorship on the mass media and all the publication of newspaper and magazines was scrutinised before publishing.
(iv) Working of the Police and Bureaucracy.
Ans. The police and bureaucracy became highly centralized. All the orders came from the central government which were deemed to be implemented.
93. In what way did the imposition of Emergency affect the party system in India? Elaborate your answer with examples.
Ans. After Emergency all opposition party come together and submerged in Janata Party under the leadership of Jayaprakash Narayan. The formation of Janata Party also ensured that non- Congress votes would not be divided. This had also ignited the idea of non-Congressism. This factor played a major role in the elections of 1977 as the Congress could win only 154 seats in the Lok Sabha. Its share of popular votes too fell to less than 35 per cent. The Janata Party itself won 295 seats and thus enjoyed a clear majority.
However this period also led to the end of the dominance of the one party in India.
94. Read the passage and answer the given questions below:
Indian democracy was never so close to a twoparty system as it was during the 1977 elections. However, the next few years saw a complete change. Soon after its defeat, the Indian National Congress split into two groups……….. … … …The Janata Party also went through major convulsions…..David Butler, Ashok Lahiri and Prannoy Roy. —Partha Chatterjee
(a) What made the party system in India look like a two-party system in 1977?
Ans. During the elections of 1977 the dominance of Congress came to an end at the Central level. Janata Party was successful in forming the government. This led to the beginning of the period of two-party system in India.
(b) Many more than two parties existed in 1977. Why then are the authors describing this period as close to a two-party system?
Ans. There were lot of parties during the 1977 however the two large groups that were contesting the elections was Congress Party and the Janata Party. The Janata Party was the coalition of all the parties who opposed the ideology of the Congress.
(c) What caused splits in Congress and the Janata parties?
Ans. Congress was split on the matter on dispute during the Presidential elections. The Syndicate and Indira Gandhi supported different candidates during the elections.
The split in the Janata Party took place due to the differences in the party leadership among Moraraji Desai, Charan Singh and Jagjivan Ram.
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