NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 3 – Politics Of Planned Development

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    105. Which of these statements about the Bombay Plan is incorrect?

    • (a) It was a blueprint for India’s economic future.
    • (b) It supported state ownership of industry.
    • (c) It was made by some leading industrialists.
    • (d) It supported strongly the idea of planning.
    • Ans. (b) It supported state ownership of industry.

    106. Which of the following ideas did not form part of the early phase of India’s development policy?

    • (a) Planning
    • (b) Liberalisation
    • (c) Cooperative Farming
    • (d) Self-sufficiency
    • Ans. (b) Liberalisation

    107. The idea of planning in India was drawn from:

    • (i) the Bombay plan
    • (ii) experiences of the Soviet bloc countries
    • (iii) Gandhian vision of society
    • (iv) Demand by peasant organisations

    (a) (ii) and (iv) only

    (b) (iv) and (iii) only

    (c) (i) and (ii) only

    (d) all of these

    Ans. (d) all of these

    108. Match the Following:

    Column-A Column-B
    (1) Charan Singh a. Industrialisation
    (2) P. C. Mahalanobis b. Zoning
    (3) Bihar Famine c. Farmers
    (4) Verghese Kurien d. Milk Cooperatives

    Ans. (i)-c, (ii)-a, (iii)-b, (iv)-d

    109. What were the major differences in the approach towards development at the time of Independence? Has the debate been resolved?

    Ans. At the time, of Independence , India had plenty of options to decide which kind of economic model is suitable for the country. India, before had two models of development, therefore the liberalcapitalist models in much of Europe and the US and the socialist model as in the USSR. In India, there were many who were impressed by the Soviet model of development . These included not just the leaders of the Communist Party of India , but also those of the Socialist Party and leaders like Nehru within the congress. There were very few supporter of the capitalist model of development.

    The debate has been resolved due to a consensus on the point that the development or planning for development should be the responsibility of the government.

    110. What was the major thrust of the First Five Year Plan? In which ways did the Second Plan differ from the first one?

    Ans. The First Five Year Plan (1951 -56) aimed getting the country out of the cycle of poverty. Its thrust was on agrarian sector including investment in dams because the agricultural sector was hit hardest by Partition and needed immediate attention.

    1. Huge allocations were made for large-scale projects like the Bhakhra-Nangal Dam.
    2. The Plan identified the patterns of land distribution in the country as the principal obstacle in the way of agricultural growth.
    3. So it focused on land reforms as the key to the country’s development.

    The Second Five Year Plan differed from the first plan in the following ways:

    1. The Second Five Year Plan stressed on heavy industries in place of agriculture.
    2. If First Five Year Plan had preached patience, the Second Plan wanted to bring about quick structural transformation by making changes simultaneously in all possible directions.
    3. The push for industrialisation marked a turning point in India’s development in the Second Five Year Plan.

    111. What was the Green Revolution? Mention two positive and two negative consequences of the Green Revolution.

    Ans. India was facing an acute food crisis during the 1960s. It has to take help from the USA for import of food items. Seeing this situation the government of India decided to achieve selfsufficiency in food production.

    1. The government of India adopted the new policies for increasing the magnitude of food production in India.
    2. Government gave more resources to the already developed areas which has suitable irrigation facilities and where farmers were well-off. The argument was given that those farmers who had existing capabilities can help in the increase in production.
    3. Government provided high-yielding varieties to farmers, fertilizers, pesticides and better irrigation facilities at subsidized rates.

    Two merits of Green Revolution:

    1. Government gave the guarantee to the farmers to buy their produce at a fixed price.
      This led to the increase in production of crops and the beginning of the green revolution.
    2. Green Revolution led to a significant increase in the production of wheat.

    Two demerits of Green Revolution are:

    1. Green revolution proved to be beneficial for the rich and landowners farmers. It did not improved the economic condition of normal peasants.
    2. It led to the creation of a new middleclass of farmers whose influence increased significantly in politics in coming times.

    112. State the main arguments in the debate that ensued between industrialisation and agricultural development at the time of the Second Five Year Plan.

    Ans. The Second Five-year Plan, laid emphasised on industrialisation, which raised some key issues and points, particularly with regard to industry versus agriculture development.

    1. Many economists felt that the Second Five-  Year Plan lacked agrarian strategy as it laid emphasis on industries and that would affect the countryside, rural development and progress.
    2. Gandhian economists such as J. C. Kumarappa called for an alternative plan that would focus on rural industrialisation.
    3. Charan Singh founder of the Bharatiya Lok Dal. He wanted agriculture to be kept in control in the government planning. He argued in the interest of farmers and rural population whose interests were overlooked in the Second Five-Year Plan.

    However, the planners justified their strategy of development and instead argued:

    1. Until the country focuses on industrialisation, the economy will never be able to come out from the cycle of poverty and unemployment.
    2. The planner argued that the agrarian sector has been looked in first five year plane. A series of land reforms, distribution of resources, community development projects and investment in irrigation projects has been made. These programmes rather require political will and appropriate implementation.

    (c) They argued that India is endowed with rich natural human resources that need to be tapped by bringing about the industrial development.

    (d) Industrialisation will reduce pressure on land, create employment opportunities for people and shift surplus population to industries.

    (e) Rapid industrialisation is essential for agricultural development and advancement.

    (f) Industrialisation will ensure modernisation, encourage material growth, prosperity, and further innovation and contribute in country’s GDP.

    113. “Indian policy makers made a mistake by emphasising the role of state in the economy. India could have developed much better if private sector was allowed a free play right from the beginning.” Give arguments for or against this proposition.

    Ans. The view that India could have developed much better if private sector was allowed a free play right from the beginning is not correct. The role of state in the economy was necessary to protect domestic industries, hence and it imposed substantial tariffs on imports. Such protected environment helped both public and private sector. A bulk of industries like electricity, railways, steel, machineries and communication could be developed in the public sector.

    The state intervention helped to attain technological capability within the country. The state intervention was also necessary to prevent resources and wealth from getting concentrated in few hands.

    114. Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

    “In the early years of Independence, two contradictory tendencies were already well advanced inside the Congress party. On the one hand, the national party executive endorsed socialist principles of state ownership, regulation and control over key sectors of the economy in order to improve productivity and at the same time curb economic concentration. On the other hand, the national Congress government pursued liberal economic policies and incentives to private investment that was justified in terms of the sole criterion of achieving maximum increase in production.” — Francine Frankel

    (i) What is the contradiction that the author is talking about? What would be the political implications of a contradiction like this?

    Ans. Author is talking about the contradiction of the Congress leaders to chose capitalist model of development or socialist model of development. This led to the creation of two wings: Right wing supporting the capitalist model and left wing supporting the socialist model.

    (ii) If the author is correct, why is it that the Congress was pursuing this policy? Was it related to the nature of the opposition parties?

    Ans. Congress was trying to create an atmosphere of sound debate in the society about the economic model of development that India should adopt.
    It wanted to listen to the views of the opposition as well to show its commitment towards democracy.   

    (iii) Was there also a contradiction between the central leadership of the Congress party and its Sate level leaders?

    Ans. There was different views among the party leaders in the Central and State as well. Every state was supporting the economic model which was suitable for their growth. It is very obvious to have contradictions in these matters.

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