NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 5 - Challenges To And Restoration Of The Congress System

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    75. Which of these statements about the 1967 elections is/are correct?

    • (a) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly elections in many states.
    • (b) Congress lost both Lok Sabha and Assembly elections.
    • (c) Congress lost majority in the Lok Sabha but formed a coalition government with the support of some other parties.
    • (d) Congress retained power at the Centre with an increased majority.
    • Ans. (a) and (c)

    76. Match the following: 

    (a) Syndicate (i) An elected representative leaving the party on whose ticket s/he has been elected
    (b) Defection (ii) A catchy phrase that attracts public attention
    (c) Slogan (iii) parties with different ideological position coming together to oppose Congress and its policies
    (d) Anti- Congressism (iv) A group of powerful leaders within the Congress

    Ans. (a)-iv, (b)-(i), (c)-(ii), (d)-(iii)

    77. Whom would you identify with the following slogans/phrases?

    • (a) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
    • (b) Indira Hatao!
    • (c) Garibi Hatao!
    • Ans. (a) Lal Bahadur Shastri
    • (b) Syndicate
    • (c) Indira Gandhi

    78. Which of the following statement about the Grand Alliance of 1971 is correct?

    The Grand Alliance …..

    • (a) was formed by non-Communist, non- Congress parties.
    • (b) had a clear political and ideological programme.
    • (c) was formed by all non-Congress parties.
    • Ans. (a) was formed by non-Communist, non- Congress parties.

    79. How should a political party resolve its internal differences? Here are some suggestions. Think of each and list out their advantages and shortcomings.

    (a) Follow the footsteps of the party president.

    Ans. Advantage: The decision making will be fast and there will be discipline.

    Disadvantage: There will be little scope for discussions and democratic decisions within the party.

    (b) Listen to the majority group.

    Ans. Advantages: It will fasten the process of decision making.

    Disadvantage: It will lead to the undermining of the rights of the minority groups to be heard properly.

    (c) Secret ballot voting on every issue.

    Ans. Advantage: It will foster a democratic environment within the party where everyone is heard.

    Disadvantage: It will led to the slowing down of the decision making abilities of the party

    (d) Consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party.

    Ans. Advantage: This will enlighten the minds of the youngsters about the possible challenges they can face in politics.

    Disadvantage: It can close the doors for the generation of the new political ideologies.

    80. State which of these were reasons for the defeat of the Congress in 1967. Give reasons for your answer.

    (a) The absence of a charismatic leader in the Congress party.

    Ans. There were several charismatic leaders in the party so it is not the reason.

    (b) Split within the Congress party.

    Ans. This was one of the primary reasons as it weakened the Congress Party internally.

    (c) Increased mobilisation of regional, ethnic and communal groups.

    Ans. This was a reasons as there was other regional parties like Akali Dal in Punjab and DMK in Tamil Nadu.

    (d) Increasing unity among non-Congress parties.

    Ans. There was no unity among the non-Congress parties.

    (e) Internal differences within the Congress party.

    Ans. This was a primary reasons as there was ideological differences within the Congress Party.

    81. What were the factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s?

    Ans. Some of the factors were:

    1. She gave main emphasis on the social policies for the betterment of people.
    2. She promised to bring land reforms and land ceiling laws.
    3. The ongoing crisis in the East Pakistan that led to the establishment of the Bangladesh also led to the increase in her popularity.
    4. She committed to work for the welfare of the poor people.

    82. What does the term ‘syndicate’ mean in the context of the Congress party of the sixties? What role did the Syndicate play in the Congress party? 

    Ans. Syndicate was the group of powerful leaders within the Congress who influenced every major decision of the party.

    1. This group was led by K. Kamaraj who was the former chief minister of Tamil Nadu. Some of the other notable leaders are S.K Patil, Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy and Atulya Ghosh.
    2. They played an important role in making Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi as the Prime Minister.
    3. They had a major role during the first tenure of Indira Gandhi and worked closely to get her policies implemented.
    4. However there was a split in Congress in 1969. The Congress (O) was led by the Syndicate and Congress (R) was led by Indira Gandhi.

    83. Discuss the major issue which led to the formal split of the Congress Party in 1969.

    Ans. Some of the major issues that led to the split are:

    1. The nomination of Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy for the post of President by the Syndicate. Indita Gandhi was against such nomination.
    2. Indira Gandhi made V.V. Giri contest the Presidential election as an independent candidate.
    3. During the elections V.V. Giri became successful in becoming the President. This led to the defeat of the Syndicate candidate Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy. This led to the split in the Congress.

    84. Read the passage and answer the questions below:

    …Indira Gandhi changed the Congress into highly centralised and undemocratic party organisation, from the earlier federal, democratic and ideological formation that Nehru had led…..But this… could not have happened had not Indira Gandhi changed the entire nature of politics. This new, populist politics turned political ideology ……. Into a mere electoral discourse, use of various slogans not meant to be translated into government policies…… During its great electoral victories in early 1970s, amidst the celebration, the Congress party as a political organisation died….. — Sudipta Kaviraj

    (a) What according to the author is the difference between the strategies of Nehru and Indira Gandhi?

    Ans. Some of the differences between Indira Gandhi and Nehru’s policies are:

    1. Indira Gandhi established a highly  centralized system of administration which functioned in an undemocratic manner.
    2. On the other hand the government of Nehru worked in a democratic manner and gave proper chance of deliberations and negotiations in the government.

    (b) Why does the author say that the Congress party ‘died’ in the seventies?

    Ans. The author did not held a positive opinion about the mechanism of the Congress Party during the rule of Indira Gandhi. He felt that Congress became undemocratic in nature and their only aim was to win the vote of people. They had no intention to work for the benefit of people. Due to this reason he said that Congress died as an organisation.

    (c) In what way, did the change in the Congress party affect other political parties also?

    Ans. The other political parties also transformed their political ideology and made them compatible to the electoral ideology of the people. Their sole aim was to win the votes of people in the elections. For that purpose they were ready to go to any extent.

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