NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

Q. Describe the economic condition of Russia before 1905.

OR

What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905?

  • Ans. (i) In the beginning of the twentieth century, the vast majority of the people of Russia were agriculturists. About 85% of the Russian empire's population earned their living from agriculture, which was higher than in most European countries.
  • (ii) The cultivators produced for the market as well as for their own needs. Russia was a major exporter of grain.
  • (iii) Industry was found in pockets. Prominent industrial areas were St Petersburg and Moscow. Craftsmen undertook much of the production, but large factories existed alongside craft workshops.
  • (iv) Many factories were set up in the 1890s, when Russia's railway network extended, and foreign investment in industry increased.
  • (v) Coal production doubled and iron and steel output quadrupled. In some areas, factory workers and craftsmen were almost equal in number by the 1900s.
  • (vi) Industry was private property of industrialists.

Q. What is Bloody Sunday? State /Give the reasons that led to the Revolution of 1905.

OR

Explain about the incident known as the ’Bloody Sunday’

  • Ans. The year 1904 proved a bad year for Russian workers.
  • (i) The political condition of Russia was in turmoil as it was an autocracy. The Tsar was not subject to Parliament. The liberals in Russia wanted to end this state of affairs.
  • (ii) Prices of essential goods rose so quickly that real wages declined by 20 per cent. Over next few days, 110,000 workers in St Petersburg went on strike demanding reduction in working hours, working days and increase in wages.
  • (iii) When the procession of workers with Father Gapon reached the Winter Palace, it was attacked the police and the Cossacks. There were injuries and death.
  • (iv) This incident came to be known as Bloody Sunday. It started a series of events that came to known as 1905 Revolution.
  • (v) Strikes took place all over the country and universities closed down when student bodies staged walkouts, complaining about the lack of civil liberties.
  • (vi) Lawyers, doctors, engineers and other middle-class workers established the union of unions and demanded a constituent assembly.