NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 4 Poverty as a Challenge

Q. What is food security?

  • (a) Availability of food to rich people
  • (b) Availability of food to poor people
  • (c) Availability of food to urban people
  • (d) Availability of food to all sections of people
  • Ans. (d) Availability of food to all sections of people

Q. Study the picture and answer the question that follows:

Food Security in Indiaanswer5

Which of the following options best signifies the picture?

  • (a) Old people in meeting
  • (b) Starvation victims arriving at relief centre, 1945
  • (c) Farmers
  • (d) None of the above
  • Ans. (b) Starvation victims arriving at relief centre, 1945

Q. Which of the following options best signifies the picture?

  • (a) Poor family
  • (b) Rich family
  • (c) Healthy family
  • (d) None of the above
  • Ans. (a) Poor family

Q. Which of the following options best describes the picture?

Food Security in Indiaanswer7
  • (a) Green revolution
  • (b) White revolution
  • (c) Operation flood
  • (d) both (b) and (c)
  • Ans. (d) both (b) and (c)

Q. ___________ crops have been intensively cultivated in the Green Revolution.

Ans. Wheat and Rice

Q. The rising MSP has reduced the maintenance cost of procuring food grains by the government.

Ans. False

Q. 

Column A Column B
(1) Poverty and hunger (a) It is lower than market price.
(2) Issue price (b) To generate supplemen-tary wage employment.
(3) Ration shops (c) Dimensions of food insecurity
(4) Food for work programme (d) Fair price shops

Ans. (1)-(c), (2)-(a), (3)-(d), (4)-(b)

Q. Which programme is launched for targeting the poor people in all areas of India?

Ans. Targeted Public Distribution System

Q. Which type of hunger persists year after year?

Ans. Seasonal hunger

Q. Which was the most devastating famine faced by India?

Ans. The Famine of Bengal 1943

Q. What do you understand by ‘seasonal hunger’?

Ans. Seasonal hunger is linked to the growing and harvesting of food. This is common in rural areas due to the seasonal nature of agricultural activity, as well as in urban areas due to the availability of casual labour. People in rural area fail to get enough food when there is no agricultural production and in urban area casual labourers do not have work throughout the year.

Q. When was rationing system introduced in India?

Ans. The rationing system was introduced in India in 1940s after the occurrence of disastrous Bengal famine.

Q. What happens to the supply of food when there is a disaster or a calamity?

Ans. When there is a disaster or any calamity the production of food grains decreases in the affected area. This in turn creates a shortage of food in the affected area. The price of goods goes up due to the shortage of food which in turn affects the purchasing power of the people. When there is any calamity in a widespread area or is for a very long period of time, it may cause a situation of starvation. A massive starvation might take a turn to famine.

A famine is defined by widespread mortality from mainutrition as well as infections induced by forced consumption of contaminated water or decaying food, as well as a lack of physical resistance due to starvation.

Q. What has our government done to provide food security to the poor? Discuss any two schemes launched by the government.

Ans. The schemes launched to provide food security to the poor include:

  • (i) Targeted Public Distribution System (TDPS) for targeting the poor people in all areas of India.
  • (ii) Annapurna Scheme to provide 10 kg of food grains free of cost per month to indigent and destitute senior citizens.
  • (iii) Antyodaya Anna Yojana to provide 25 kg food grains per month at the rate of ₹ 2 per kg for wheat and ₹ 3 per kg for rice to BPL families identified as the ‘poorest of the poor’.
  • (iv) Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) to provide children upto 6 years of age with supplementary nutrition, immunization, health check-up, referral services, pre-school non-formal education as well as nutrition and health education for their mothers.

Q. Where did the Great Famine of 1943 take place? How many people were killed in this famine? How are we prepared to handle such a situation if it occurs now?

Ans. The Great Famine of 1943 took place in West Bengal. It was the most devastating famine that occurred in India. This famine killed 30 lakh people in Bengal. The incidence like this has not happened in India again. India’s preparedness to fight 1943 like situation are:

  • (i) Enough food is available for all persons.
  • (ii) All persons have the capacity to buy food of acceptable quality.
  • (iii) There is no barrier on access to food.
  • (iv) Through Buffer Stock and PDS government has ensured availability of food to all sections of the society.

Q. Explain the measures adopted by the government of India to achieve self-sufficiency in food grains.

Ans. After independence, Indian policy makers adopted all measure to achieve self-sufficiency in food grains. Following measures were adopted by government of India to achieve self-sufficiency in food grains.

  • (i) India adopted a new strategy in agriculture, which resulted in ‘Green Revolution’ especially to boost the production of wheat and rice.
  • (ii) The government has made the provision of buffer stock meant to distribute food grains in the food deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price lower than the market price. This also helps to resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during the periods of calamity.
  • (iii) The government has made provision of Public Distribution System (PDS). This is meant for distribution of food grains through government regulated shops among the poorer sections of the society.
  • (iv) The government has also initiated other food intervention programmes like Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), Food for Work Programme, Rural Wage Employment Programmes, Employment Guarantee Scheme, Sampurna Grameen Rozgar Yojana, Mid-Day Meal, etc.

Q. Assertion (A): Seasonal hunger prevalent in rural and tribal areas.
Reason (R):
The population in rural and tribal areas is mostly dependent on agriculture and it is a seasonal activity.

Ans. (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

 Explanation :

Agricultural activities are reliant on natural forces. Seasonal hunger is linked to the growing and harvesting of food. The population in rural and tribal areas is dependent on agriculture and associated industry activities employ 54.6 percent of the total workforce.