NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World
Q. Identify the appropriate reason for the enactment of the Waste Land Rules.
Q. Study the picture and answer the question that follows
Which of the following aspects best signifies this image of Maasais?
Q. Which animals amongst the following did the Kurumas and Kurubas rear?
Q. Which of the following statements defines Criminal Tribes Act?
Q. The Gaddi shepherds belong to _______ .
Ans. Himachal Pradesh
Q. The Gaddi shepherds of Punjab had a similar cycle of seasonal movement of that the Gujjars.
Q. Who are nomads?
Ans. Nomads are the people who move from one place to another in search of food and fodder.
Q. How was the movement of Dhangar different than that of Gujjars?
Ans. Dhangar's movement was guided by the annual cycle of monsoon whereas Gujjar's movement was dependent upon change of season i.e. winter and summer.
Q. Name the Act which was passed by the British government to limit the movement of the nomadic people. Mention any two features of the Act.
Ans. The act passed was the Criminal Tribes Act 1971 By this Act, many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as Criminal Tribes. Under this Act, various restrictions were put on their movement.
Q. What are the major activities of the nomadic communities of Africa?
Ans. They raise cattles, camels, goats, sheep and donkeys. They sell milk, meat, animal skin and wool.
Q. Explain briefly about Gujjar cattle herders of Garhwal and Kumaon.
Ans. In Garhwal and Kumaon, the Gujjar cattle herders came down to the dry forests of the bhabar in the winter, and went up to the Bugyal or high meadows in summer. Many of them were originally from Jammu and came to the UP hills in the nineteenth century in search of good pastures.
Q. Deodar and sal are classified in which category under Forest, and why? What was the rule of these forests?
Ans. Through the Forest Acts some forests which produced commercially valuable timber like deodar or sal were declared ‘Reserved’. No pastoralist had access to these forests.
Q. How did the young Maasai men prove their manliness?
Ans. Young Maasai men came to be recognised as members of the warrior class when they proved their manliness by raiding the cattle of other pastoral groups and participating in wars. However, it was subjected to the authority of the elders.
Q. Who are nomadic pastoralists?
Ans. Nomads are the people who do not live at one place but move from one area to another to earn their living are found in many parts of India, we can see nomadic pastoralists on the move with their herds of goats and sheep, or camels and cattle.
They move place to place in search of new pastures for their herds of goats and sheep.
Q. Why did the colonial state introduce Waste Land Rules?
Ans. The colonial state introduced Waste Land Rules for the following reasons:
Q. What were the factors that sustained the pastoral groups?
Ans. The various factors that sustained the pastoral groups were:
Q. How did the division of Maasailand affected the Maasai?
Ans. In 1885, Maasailand was cut into half with an international boundary between Kenya and Tanganyika.
Q. Why did the Maasai pastoral community lose their grazing grounds?
Ans. One of the problems that the Maasais faced was the continuous loss of their grazing lands.
Reason (R): The pastoralists moved to a better pasture land with good trading opportunities.
Ans. (c) A is correct but R is wrong.
This adversely affected both their pastoral and trading activities. The restrictions under colonial rule did not entirely stop their trading activities but they were now subject to various restrictions.