NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Q. Study the picture and answer the question that follows:


Identify the type of vegetation.
(a) Tropical Evergreen Forests
(b) Tropical Deciduous Forests
(c) Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
(d) Montane Forests

Ans. (b) Tropical Deciduous Forests

Q. Study the picture and answer the question that follows:

vegetation 1

Which type of natural vegetation is depicted in the picture given below?
(a) Tropical Deciduous Forests
(b) Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
(c) Montane Forests
(d) Mangrove Forests

Ans. (b) Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs

Q. Identify the type of vegetation found in the following region.

vegetation 2

(a) Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
(b) Tropical Deciduous Forests
(c) Mangrove Forests
(d) Montane Forests

Ans. (d) Montane Forests

Q. To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to?

(a) Tundra
(b) Himalayan
(c) Tidal
(d) Tropical Evergreen

Ans. (d) Tropical Evergreen

Q. Which of the following positions does India occupy in the world with regard to plant diversity?

(a) Fourth
(b) Sixth
(c) Tenth
(d) Twelfth

Ans. (c) Tenth

Q. The elephants are found in the hot-wet forests of ________ and ____________.

Ans. Assam, Karnataka

Q. Cinchona trees are found in the areas of rainfall more than 100 cm.

Ans. True

Q. Kachnar plant has high antibiotic and antibacterial properties.

Ans. False


Type of Vegetation Trees found
(1) Tropical evergreen Rainforest (a) Sundari, palm, keora, agar
(2) Tropical deciduous forest (b) Silver fir, junipers, chestnut, spruce, cedar
(3) Tropical thorn and scrub forest (c) Cactus, acacias
(4) Montane forest (d) Khair, arjun, bamboo, sal, shisham, peepal
(5) Mangrove forest (e) Mahogany, cinchona, rosewood, rubber

(a) (1)-(c), (2)-(d), (3)-(e), (4)-(b),(5)-(a)
(b) (1)-(c), (2)-(a), (3)-(b), (4)-(e),(5)-(d)
(c) (1)-(e), (2)-(a), (3)-(b), (4)-(c),(5)-(d)
(d) (1)-(d), (2)-(d), (3)-(c), (4)-(b),(5)-(a)

Ans. (d) (1)-(e), (2)-(d), (3)-(c), (4)-(b), (5)-(a)

Q. Why the moist tropical deciduous forests are more prominent in the eastern and central parts of India?

Ans. These areas experience 100 to 200 cm of annual rainfall.

Q. Where was the first biosphere reserve set up?

Ans. Nilgiri

Q. How the nature of the land impacts the type of vegetation of that place?

Ans. The nature of land influences the type of vegetation. The fertile level is generally devoted to agriculture. The undulating and rough terrains are areas where grassland and woodlands develop and give shelter to a variety of wildlife.

Q. List the different types of vegetation found in India.

Ans. The following major types of vegetation are found in our country:

Q. Why are the southern slopes in Himalayan region covered with thick vegetation cover as compared to northern slopes of the same hills?

Ans. The northern slopes of the hills in Himalayan region are on the leeward side (Rain Shadow Zone). This does not support much vegetation. On the other hand, the southern slopes of Himalayas are on the windward side of monsoon winds. Thus, get high amount of rainfall. Moreover, the southern slopes of Himalayas receive more sunlight than northern slopes because of their direction.

Q. ‘Bird life in India is colourful’. Write in brief.

Ans. India has more than 2,000 species of birds. Many migratory birds visit wetlands of India. In places where desert merges with the sea, like Rann of Kutch, flamingos come in large numbers. Some of the famous species of birds in India are peacocks, ducks, parakeets, cranes, vultures, pheasants, etc.

Q. ‘India has a rich heritage of flora and fauna’. Justify the statement.

Ans. India is rich in flora and fauna and is marked by great biodiversity. With about 47,000 plant species, India occupies tenth place in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. 15,000 flowering plants are endemic or indigenous to India. They account for 6 per cent of world’s total number of flowering plants. A large number of non-flowering plants like ferns, algae and fungi are also found in India. Plants of all climatic regions ranging from tropical to tundra are found in India. India is rich in fauna or animal life also. It has more than 89,000 species of animals and 1200 species of birds. 13 per cent of the world’s total numbers of birds are found in India. 5 to 8 per cent of the world’s amphibians are found in India. It has, 2546 species of fishes in its marine and freshwaters. This accounts for nearly 12 per cent of the world’s stock. India is the only country in the world which has both lions and tigers.

Q. Describe how climate, rainfall and relief influence the vegetation of an area.

Ans. The factors like climate, rainfall and relief that influence the vegetation of an area are described below:
Role of climate in determining the natural vegetation of a region:
(i) The character and extent of vegetation are mainly determined by temperature along with humidity in the air, precipitation and soil. On the slopes of the Himalayas and the hills of the Peninsula above the height of 915 metres, the fall in the temperature affects the types of vegetation and its growth.
(ii) The variation in duration of sunlight at different places is due to differences in latitude, altitude, season and duration of the day. Due to longer duration of sunlight, trees grow faster in summer.

Role of rainfall in determining the natural vegetation of a region:
(i) In India, almost the entire rainfall is brought in by the advancing southwest monsoon (June to September) and retreating northeast monsoons. Areas of heavy rainfall have more dense vegetation as compared to areas of less rainfall.
(ii) Rainfall determines the type, character and extent of vegetation in an area.
(iii) Areas of heavy rainfall have dense vegetation with rich forests while arid areas and semi-arid areas with less rainfall have thorny and scrub vegetation.
Role of relief in determining the natural vegetation of a region:
(i) The type of vegetation found in an area depends upon the relief or landform of the area.
(ii) The fertile level lands of plains are generally devoted to agriculture. Much of the natural vegetation is cleared or altered in such areas. Grasslands and woodlands develop in areas with undulating and rough terrains.
(iii) Mountainous areas have succession of vegetation types according to the altitude of the area.

Q. Write a note on the importance of biosphere reserves. What are their objectives?

Ans. Biosphere reserves are a series of multipurpose protected areas linked through a global network, intended to demonstrate the relationship between conservation and development. Their sole purpose is conservation of flora and fauna.
Importance of biosphere reserves:
(i) The biosphere reserves play an important role in maintaining the ecological balance in the ecosystem.
(ii) In the biosphere, all living beings are interrelated and interdependent on each other for survival. This life supporting system is called ecosystem.
(iii) Vegetation and wildlife are two valuable resources of the biosphere. The biosphere reserves are set up to protect them and maintain diversity.
The main objectives of the biosphere reserves:
(i) To protect and conserve the biological diversity, i.e., preserving plant and animal species of the area in natural forms.
(ii) To protect flora and fauna from over-exploitation.
(iii) To undertake research and experimentation in forestry.
(iv) To save endangered species and prevent extinction of valuable species. There are fourteen such biosphere reserves in India.

Q. Assertion (A): Tropical deciduous forests are the most widespread forests of India.
Reason (R): On the basis of the availability of water, these forests are further divided into moist and dry deciduous.

Ans. (b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.

 Explanation :

Tropical deciduous forests are the most widespread forests of India. They are also called the monsoon forests because they are found in the regions that receive good amount of rainfall for a part of the year and experience a dry climate for the other half. They are further divided into moist and dry deciduous forests.

Q. Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered. Why?