# Data – Its Source and Compilation Class 12 Notes Geography Chapter 1 CBSE

## Chapter : 1

## What Are Data-its Source And Compilation ?

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## Part C - Practical Geography

- Data refers to the numerical and quantitative measurements of geographic occurrences, human activities, and their interrelationships. In other terms, datum refers to quantitative data. As a result, data is sometimes referred to as quantitative information. Numbers from the actual world determine the measurement.
- It is easy to see that there is a large amount of data available today worldwide. However, if the data is in its raw form, it might be difficult to draw logical inferences from it. As a result, it’s critical to guarantee that the measured data is algorithmically produced, logically reasoned, and statistically estimated from a variety of

sources. - Statistical approaches play a vital part in practically all disciplines that employ data, including geography, in terms of analysis, presentation, and concluding.
- The data are collected in the following ways. These are: (i) Primary Sources (ii) Secondary Sources.
- Primary data sources are those that are acquired for the first time by a person or a group of individuals, institutions, or organisations.
- Secondary sources are data acquired from any public or unpublished source.
- Absolute data, often known as raw data, is data provided in its native form as numbers. For example, a country’s or state’s total population, a crop’s or manufacturing industry’s total production, and so on.
**Percentage/Ratio:**Data is sometimes summarised as a ratio or proportion based on common criteria, such as literacy rate or population growth rate, percentage of agricultural or industrial output, and so on.- An index number is a statistical metric that depicts changes in a variable or a collection of related variables through time, space, or other qualities.
**Inclusive Method:**The higher limit of one class is not the lower limit of the following class in this procedure.

In the class interval, it comprises both the bottom and upper limits.**Simple Frequencies:**It is denoted by the letter ‘f’ and represents the number of people who belong to each category.**Exclusive Method:**In this method, a class’s higher limit is the lower limit of the following class. The class interval does not include an upper limit.**Cumulative Frequencies:**This is denoted by the letter’ Cf, and it is calculated by summing the sums of successive simple frequencies in each group.**Frequency Polygon:**The frequency polygon is a graph showing frequency distribution. It aids in the comparison of two or more frequency distributions. A bar diagram and a line graph are used to depict the two frequencies.**Ogive:**Cumulative frequencies are created when frequencies are put together, and they’re listed in a table called the cumulative frequency table. An Ogive is a curve created by cumulative graphing frequencies. It may be built using either the less than or more than technique.