Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Class 12 Notes Geography Chapter 9 - CBSE

Chapter : 9

What Are Planning In India ?


• Planning is a process of making or carrying out plans. For e.g. we do planning for the preparation of our examinations and whenever we want to visit a hill station.

• Planning is thinking before the action takes place.

• It helps us to take a look into the future and decide in advance the way to deal with the situations, which we are going to happen in future.

  • In this chapter, planning has been used with reference to the process of economic development.

Process Of Planning Involves

  • Process of thinking
  • Formulation of a scheme or programme
  • Implementation of a set of actions to achieve some goal

Planning Commission

  • India adopted centralised planning after Independence for the socio-economic development of the country.
  • The Planning Commission of India was set up in March 1950.
  • The responsibility of plan formulation was rests with the Planning Commission at the Centre, State and district levels.

Niti Aayog

  • NITI Aayog was formed on 1 January 2015.
  • On 1 January 2015, the Planning Commission was replaced by the NITI Aayog.
  • NITI Aayog has been set up with the objective of including the states in economic policy making for India for providing strategic and technical advice to the Central and State governments.

Two Approaches to Planning

  • Sectoral Planning
    Sectoral planning means preparation and execution of the sets of schemes or programmes aimed at the development of particular sectors of the economy.
  • For example agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing, power, construction, transport, communication, social infrastructure and services.
  • Regional Planning
  • There is not uniform economic development in any country.
  • Some areas of a country are more developed and some areas are less developed.
  • This uneven pattern of development over the country forced the planners to make plans for the overall development of all the regions.
  • The planners draw the plans to reduce regional disparity in development.
  • This type of planning is termed as regional planning.

Target Area Planning

  • Target area planning means making plans for the development of targeted backward regions of India.
  • This type of planning is required in India because regional imbalances in economic development.
  • The economic development of a region depends upon availability of resource in the region.
  • Sometimes resource-rich region are also remain backward.
  • Economic development requires technology, investment and availability of resources also.

Approaches of planning commission of India to planning

• During 1960s the government of India was realised that regional imbalances in economic development was major factor of concern.

  • In order to remove regional and social disparities, the Planning Commission introduced the ‘Target Area’ and ‘Target Group’ approaches to planning.
Target Area Approach Target Group Approaches
• Command Area Development Programme • The Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA)
• Drought Prone Area Development Programme • Marginal Farmers Development Agency (MFDA)
• Desert Development Programme
• Hill Area Development Programme

Hill Area Development Programme (HADP)

Launched During Fifth Plan (1974–1978)
Areas • 15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttarakhand
• Mikir Hill and North Cachar hills of Assam
• Darjeeling district of West Bengal
• Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu
Objective • These programmes aimed to harness the indigenous resources of the hill areas
• To develop horticulture, plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, forestry and small-scale and village industry.
Backward Hill Areas • The National Committee on the Development of Backward Area in 1981
• It recommended that all the hill areas in the country having height above 600 m and not covered under tribal sub-plan be treated as backward hill areas.

Drought Prone Area Programme

Launched During Fifth Plan (1974–1978)
Objective • The objectives of DPAP are to providing employment to the people in drought-prone areas.
Review of DPAP by National Committee on Development of Backward Areas • It has been observed that DPAP is largely limited to the development of agriculture.
• More focus on restoration of ecological balance.
• Growing population pressure is causing ecological degradation.
• So there is a need to create alternative employment opportunities in the droughtprone areas.
Suggestions by National Committee on Development of Backward Areas • They suggested adoption of integrated watershed development approach at the micro-level.
• Ecological balance between water, soil, plants, and human and animal population should be maintained.
Drought Prone areas of India • The Planning Commission of India (1967) recognised 67 district of the country prone to drought.
• The Irrigation Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of 30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the drought-prone areas.
• The droughtprone area in India spread in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh.
• Marathwada region of Maharashtra.
• Rayalseema and Telangana plateaus of Andhra Pradesh.
• Karnataka plateau
• Highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu.
• The drought-prone areas of Punjab, Haryana and north-Rajasthan are largely protected due to spread of irrigation in these regions.

Case Study – Integrated Tribal Development Project in Bharmaur Region

Location This region lies between 32° 11’ N and 32°41’ N latitudes and 76° 22’ E and 76° 53’E longitudes
Fact The name Bharmaur is derived from Sanskrit word Brahmaur.
District and State Bharmaur tribal area includes Bharmaur and Holi tehsils of Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh
Area 1,818 sq km
Occupation/ Economy Terrace farming, animal rearing and some primary activities
Population 2011 census, the total population of Bharmaur sub-division was 39,113 i.e., 21 persons per sq km
Sea Level Between 1,500 m to 3,700 m
Famous for Gaddis • Home land of Gaddis (Gaddis, a Scheduled Tribe of Himachal Pradesh, are found principally focused in Bharmauri of Chamba district, an area popularly called ‘Gaderan’ which means ‘the home of the Gaddis’. Bharmour is additionally known as the abode of Gaddis)
• Gaddis were included among ‘scheduled tribes’.
Mountain Ranges around Pir Panjal in the north and Dhaula Dhar in the south
River Ravi
Tributaries of Ravi The Budhil and the Tundahen
Four physiographic divisions Holi, Khani, Kugti and Tundah
Monthly Temperature 4°C and in July 26°C.

Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP)

Launched • Under the Fifth Five Year Plan, the tribal sub-plan was introduced in 1974
• Bharmaur was chosen as one of the five Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP) in Himachal Pradesh
Aim of ITDP • To Improve the quality of life of the Gaddis of this area
• To Decrease the gap in the level of development between Bharmaur and other areas of Himachal Pradesh
• To Development of transport and communications, agriculture and allied activities, and social and community services
• To Development of infrastructure in terms of schools, healthcare facilities, potable water, roads, communications and electricity
Social benefits • Tremendous increase in literacy rate.
• Improvement in sex ratio and decline in child marriage.
• The female literacy rate in the region increased from 1.88 per cent in 1971 to 65 per cent in 2011.
• The cultivation of pulses and other cash crops has increased in Bharmaur region. But the crop cultivation is still done with traditional technology.
Decline in Migration • The declining importance of pastoralism in the economy
• At present only about one-tenth of the total households practise transhumance
• Transhumance is the practice of moving livestock from one grazing ground to another in a seasonal cycle.
• Large sections The declining importance of pastoralism in the economy
• of Gaddis are still very mobile to migrate to Kangra and other areas during winter to earn their livelihood.

Sustainable Development

Meaning of Development • The term development describe the process of changes experienced by the societies
• Development is a multi-dimensional concept and signifies the positive, permanent transformation of the economy, society and environment.
Evolution of the concept of development during the second half of twentieth century • After World War II era, the concept of development was one and the same to economic growth
• It was measured in terms of increase in gross national product (GNP) and per capita income/per capita consumption.
• In 1970s, the concept of development cannot be restricted to the economic sphere alone.
• It also includes the issues such as improving the well-being and living standard of people, availing of the health, education and equality of opportunity and ensuring political and civil rights.
• By 1980s, development emerged as a concept of wide-spread improvement in social as well as material well-being of all in a society.
Emergence of the notion of sustainable development • The notion of sustainable development emerged due to the rise in the awareness of environmental issues in the late 1960s in Western World.
• It gave more concern to the undesirable effects of industrial development on the environment.
• The publication like ‘The Population Bomb’ by Ehrlich (1968) and ‘The Limits to Growth’ by Meadows (1972) raised fear among environmentalists and people.
• This sets the scenario for the emergence of new models of development under a broad phrase ‘sustainable development.’
World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) • Growing concerns of world community on the environmental issues, the United Nations established a World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED)
• It was headed by the Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland.
• The Commission gave its Brundtland Report in 1987.
• The report defines sustainable development as a “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
Objectives of Sustainable Development • It takes care of ecological, social and economic phases of development
• It also appeals the people for the conservation of resources so that the future generations can also use these resources.
• It also focused on the development of whole human kind which has common future.

Indira Gandhi Canal (Nahar) Command Area

Indira Canal Also known as Rajasthan Canal, largest canal system on India
Conceived By Kanwar Sain in 1948
Launched 31 March, 1958.
Originate Harike barrage in Punjab
Areas in Rajasthan Thar Desert (Marusthali) of Rajasthan
Total planned length 9,060 km
Catering irrigation 19.63 lakh hectares irrigation 70% flows 30% lift system
Stages of the construction work of the canal system Stage-I command area of the canal was introduced in early 1960s
Stages of the construction work of the canal system Stage -2 command area began receiving irrigation in mid-1980s
Stage -1 • Stage-I (1960s) lies in Ganganagar, Hanumangarh and northern part of Bikaner districts.
• Its culturable command area is 5.53 lakh hectares
• Culturable means able to be cultivated or cultured
Stage-2 • The command area of Stage-II (1980s) is spread over Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Jodhpur, Nagaur and Churu districts
• Its culturable command area of 14.10 lakh hectares.
Positive influence • The introduction of canal irrigation in this dry land has transformed its ecology, economy and society.
• The availability of soil moisture for a longer period of time
• Various afforestation and pasture development programmes under CAD have resulted in greening the land.
• Reduced wind erosion and siltation of canal systems.
• Spread of canal irrigation has led to increase in cultivated area
• The traditional crops sown in the area, gram, bajra and jowar have been replaced by wheat, cotton, groundnut and rice.
Negative influence • Intensive irrigation and excessive use of water has led to waterlogging and soil salinity

Measures For Promotion Of Sustainable Development

• Strict putting into practice of water management policy.

• People should be encouraged to grow plantation crops.

• Lining of water courses, land development and levelling and warabandi system* shall be effectively implemented.

• The areas affected by water logging and soil salinity shall be reclaimed.

• More efforts should be taken for afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and pasture development 

• Land holders of poor economic background shall be provided suitable financial and institutional support for cultivation of land.

• More steps should be taken for the development of agriculture and animal husbandry.

*Warabandi system is equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet)