Transport and Communication Class 12 Notes Geography Chapter 10 - CBSE
Chapter : 10
What Are Transport And Communication ?
- All the production is meant for consumption. From the fields and factory, the produce is brought to the place from where consumers purchase it.
- It is the transportation of these items from the site of their production to the market which make them available to the consumer. Also The exchange of views, ideas and messages from one place to another or one individual to another with the help of various communication means.
The pathways and unmetalled roads have been used for transportation in India since ancient times. With the economic and technological development, metalled roads and railways were developed to move large volume of goods and people from one place to another.
- India has one of the second largest road networks in the world with a total length of about 56 lakh km (morth.nic.in, Annual Report 2017-18).
- Road transport in modern sense was very limited in India before World War-II. The first serious attempt was made in 1943 when ‘Nagpur Plan’ was drawn. This plan could not be implemented due to lack of coordination among the princely states and British India.
- After Independence, twenty-year road plan (1961) was introduced to improve the conditions of roads in India. However, roads continue to concentrate in and around urban centres.
- Roads are classified as National Highways (NH), State Highways (SH), Major District Roads and Rural Roads.
- Indian Railways, network is one of the longest in the world. It facilitates the movement of both freight and passengers and contributes to the growth of the economy.
- Indian Railway was introduced in 1853, when a line was constructed from Bombay to Thane covering a distance of 34 km. But now Indian Railways is the largest government undertaking in the country. The length of Indian Railways network was 66,030 km as on 31 March 2015. 7. In India, the railway system has been
divided into 16 zones.
- Metro rail has revolutionlised the urban transport system in Kolkata and Delhi. Replacement of diesel buses by CNG-run vehicles along with the introduction of metro is a welcome step towards controlling the air pollution in urban centres.
- The most significant development has been the development of Konkan Railway along the western coast providing a direct link between Mumbai and Mangaluru.
- Railway continues to remain the main means of transport for the masses.
- Railway network is relatively less dense in the hill states, north eastern states, central parts of India and Rajasthan.
Waterways is an important mode of transport for both passenger and cargo traffic in India. It is the cheapest means of transport and is most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky material. It is a fuel-efficient and eco-friendly mode of transport. The water transport is of two types:
- Moreover, diversion of river water for irrigation purposes made them non-navigable in large parts of their courses.
- India has 14,500 km of navigable waterways, contributing about 1% to the country’s transportation. It comprises rivers, canals, backwaters, creeks, etc.
- India has a vast coastline of approximate 7,517 km, including islands. Twelve major and 185 minor ports provide infrastructural support to these routes. Oceanic routes play an important role in the transport sector of India’s economy. Approximately 95 per cent of India’s foreign trade by volume and 70 per cent by value moves through ocean routes. Apart from international trade, these are also used for the purpose of transportation between the islands and the rest of the country.
- Air transport is the fastest means of movement from one place to the other. It has reduced distances by minimising the travel time. It is essential for a vast country like India, where distances are large an the terrain and climatic conditions are diverse.
- Air transport in India made a beginning in 1911 when airmail operation commenced over a little distance of 10 km between Allahabad and Naini.
- But its real development took place in post Independent period. The Airport Authority of India is responsible for providing safe, efficient air traffic and aeronautical communication services in the Indian Air Space.
- The authority manages 125 airports. The air transport in India is managed by Air India.
- Now, many private companies have also started passenger services.
- Air India provides International Air Services for both passengers and cargo traffic. It connects all the continents of the world through its services.
- Pawan Hans is the helicopter service operating in hilly areas and is widely used by tourists in north-eastern sector 14. Pawan Hans Limited mainly provides helicopter services to petroleum sector and for tourism.
Oil And Gas Pipelines
- Pipelines are the most convenient and efficient mode of transporting liquids and gases over long distances. Even solids can also be transported by pipelines after converting them into slurry.
- Oil India Limited (OIL) under the administrative set up of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas is engaged in the exploration, production and transportation of crude oil and natural gas.
- It was incorporated in 1959 as a company. Asia’s first cross country pipeline covering a distance of 1,157 km was constructed by OIL from Naharkatiya oilfield in Assam to Barauni refinery in Bihar.
- Recently, a 1256 km long pipeline connecting Salaya (Gujarat) with Mathura (U.P.) has been constructed.
- Human beings have evolved different methods of communication over time. In earlier times, the messages were delivered by beating the drum or hollow tree trunks, giving indications through smoke or fire or with the help of fast runners.
- Initially, the means of communication were also the means of transportation. Invention of post office, telegraph, printing press, telephone, satellite, etc has made the communication much faster and easier.
- Development in the field of science and technology has significantly contributed in bringing about revolution in the field of communication. People use different modes of communication to convey the messages.
- On the basis of scale and quality, the mode of communication can be divided into two categories- Personal communication and Mass communication.