Chapter : 6

What Are Spatial Information Technology ?

  • Computers enhance our data processing capabilities and draw graphs, diagrams, and maps.
  • The disciplines that deal with the principles and methods of data processing and mapping using a combination of computer hardware and the application software are termed the Database Management System (DBMS)ย  and the Computer-Assisted Cartography.

Spatial Information System

In order to grasp geographical issues and a variety of other topics, we must collect the relevant data from various sources and combine it using a computer with geo-processing software. The name of the system is Spatial Information System.

Spatial Information Technology (Sit)

It refers to the characteristics and phenomena dispersed throughout a geographically delimited space and have physically quantifiable dimensions. In other words, the use of technical inputs in collecting, storing, retrieving, presenting, manipulating, managing, and analysing geographic information is referred to as Spatial
Information Technology.

Under Spatial Information Technology four systems work in a combined fashion. These are:

  • Remote Sensing
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • Geographical Information System (GIS)
  • Digital Cartography and Database Management Systems.

Geographical Information System

It is defined as a system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, analysing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth. A system capable of all such functions is called Geographic Information System (GIS). This involves a spatially referenced computer database and appropriate application
software.

  • Two types of data represent the geographical information. These are: Spatial Information and non-spatial Information.
  • Important components of Geographical Information System: Hardware, Software, Data, People, and Process.

Raster Data Format

Raster data represent a graphic feature as a pattern of grids of squares, whereas vector data represent the object as a set of lines drawn between specific points.

The Raster file formats are most often used for the following activities:

  • For digital representations of aerial photographs, satellite images scanned paper maps, etc.
  • The following sequence of the activities are involved in GIS-related work: Spatial data input, Entering of the attribute data, Data verification and editing, Spatial and attribute data linkages and Spatial analysis.

Vector Data Format

Vector data represents the object as a set of lines drawn between specific points.

Scanners

The scanners are the devices for converting analogue data into digital grid-based images.

Buffer Operation

A buffer of a certain specified distance can be created along any. Point, line or area feature. It is useful in locating the areaโ€™s population benefited or denied the services policies such as hospitals, post offices, etc.