Secondary Activities Class 12 Notes Geography Chapter 6 - CBSE
Chapter : 6
What Are Secondary Activities ?
- All the economic activities performed by humans can be categorized into three categories-Primary, Secondary and Tertiary.
- Secondary activities take raw material, process it with the help of labour and machinery and prepare more valuable products. For E.g., Wood is a raw material and furniture is a more valuable product.
- With the application of power, mass production and specialized labour in factory settings; manufacturing produces wide array of products ranging from handicrafts to Iron and steel.
- Characteristics of Modern Large-Scale Manufacturing:
- The modern large-scale industries enjoy the benefit of location factors. Thus, less than 10% of world’s geographical area cover most of the modern large-scale industries. Some of the factors influencing industrial location are:
- The industries when come together to prevail the benefits of nearness to a leader industry is called as Agglomeration Economies.
- On the basis of size, industries can be divided as:
a) Cottage/Household Industries: In these industries family members of a family work together within their home, buy locally available raw material and supply leather products, pottery products etc. within their close network.
b) Small Scale Industries: In this category semi-skilled labourers are hired; basic machinery is used and locally available raw material is purchased to manufacture items like sports good etc. This system is in vogue in high populated countries like India, China, Indonesia, Bangladesh etc.
c) Large Scale Industries: This style of manufacturing involves a large market, various raw materials, enormous energy, specialised workers, advanced technology, assembly-line mass production and large capital. Large scale manufacturing can further be classified as traditional large scale and high technology large scale.
- On the basis of raw material, Industries can be divided as:
- Industries based on output are classified as:
- Industries based on ownership are:
- Traditional large scale Industrial regions: The traditional large-scale industries like metal, chemical and textile industries used to be labour intensive with conventional manufacturing style and with least environmental concern. One such example is uh Coal-fields of Germany.
- This region produces 80% of Germanys total steel. With the advancement in industrial structure, this industry is at the verge of decay and is now replaced by new industries like Opel Car assemble, chemical plants, universities and shopping center. Etc.
- Iron and Steel Industry falls in the category of large-scale basic industry.
- This industry on the scale of its production can be divided into Integrated steel plants, which are bigger, more complex and takes more capital. Thus, are located close to raw material. On the other hand, mini steel plants use pig iron or leftovers from integrated steel plants to make alloys.
- Iron and steel industry is distributed all over the world.
- Cotton textile industry has three sub-sectors i.e., handloom, power loom and mill sectors. Handloom sector is labour-intensive and provides employment to semi-skilled workers.
- Industry is located at a place where your cotton is easily available.
- Among all the continents Europe produces the biggest share in cotton production.
- The Modern industries are based on hi-tech in production activity.
- For example, Electronics industry hires educated employees, robotics on the assembly line, computer-aided design (CAD).
- High-tech industries which are regionally concentrated, self-sustained and highly specialised are called Technopolis.
- Manufacturing industries like Iron and steel, textiles, automobiles and electronics contributes largely in world economy.