NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 7 Directing

Q. What is informal communication?

Ans. Informal communication is casual communication between co-workers at the work place.

Q. Explain any three principles of Directing.

Ans. Principles of Directing are as follows:

  • (i) Maximum Individual Contribution: This principle emphasises that directing techniques must help every employee to contribute to his maximum potential in order to achieve the organisational goals. It should help in bringing out unused or dormant potential of an employee to improve the efficiency of the organisation, e.g., suitable and appropriate incentives should be given to encourage employees to improve their performance.
  • (ii) Harmony of Objectives: Most of the time it happens that the organisational objectives and individual objectives move in opposite directions. The person in charge of a team of workers should guide and instruct his team in such a manner that they realise the importance of both the objectives.
  • (iii) Unity of Command: This principle insists that a person in the organisation should receive instructions from one superior only. If instructions are received from more than one, it creates confusion, conflict and disorder in the organisation. Adherence to this principle ensures effective direction.

Q. State the different networks of grapevine communication.

Ans. Grapevine communications may follow different types of network. They are as follows:

(i) Single strand network: Each person communicates to the other in sequence.

Single strand network

(ii) Gossip network: Each person communicates with all on non-selective basis.

Gossip network

(iii) Probability network: The individual communicates randomly with other individual.

Probability network

(iv) Cluster network: The individual communicates with only those people whom he trusts.

Cluster network

Q. Discuss Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory of Motivation.

Ans. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory of Motivation: Motivation is a psychological term and the needs of an employee plays an important role in motivation. In order to study motivation various researchers developed theories on them. Among them Abraham Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory is considered of worth. As per him, their exists a Hierarchy of five needs. These are: 

Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory of Motivation
  • (i) Basic Physiological Needs: These needs are most basic in the hierarchy and corresponds to primary needs. Food, clothing shelter are a few examples of this type of need. Basic salary helps to fulfill these needs.
  • (ii) Safety/Security Needs: When the basic needs are satisfied, people start thinking of future. These needs provide security and protection from physical and emotional harm in coming future e.g., job security, pension plans etc.
  • (iii) Affiliation/Belonging Needs: These needs refer to human feeling of belongingness. We all as human beings look forward to being accepted in the society e.g., friendship.
  • (iv) Esteem Needs: These include factors such as self-respect, autonomous status, attention. In this need an individual wants respect and recognition from others.
  • (v) Self-actualisation Needs: It is the highest level of need in the hierarchy. It refers to the drive to become what one is capable of becoming. The needs include growth selffulfillment and achievement of goals etc.